Maria Calati (Italy, 20th century): Italian illustrator.
Abadal (): The Abadal family began to print and engraved in Mataró (Barcelona) in 1779. 600 xylographies have been catalogued. (Costa i Oller, France: L’art del Abadal: Impressors i xilògrafs de Mataró del segles XVIII i XIX. Barcelona. Barcelona: Patronat Municipal de Culturà de Mataró, 1994).
Juan Alaminos (Madrid, 19th century) [AKA: Juan Alaminas]: Illustrator working in Madrid around 1887.
Albert (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator working in Paris c. 1862.
Francisco Alcántara (1764 - ¿?): Painter and illustration designer. He follows Luis Paret y Alcázar’s style, creating images of great elegance and charming. He worked in Madrid. [Benezit I, 94; Lenaghan 247 – 256]
Leonardo Alenza y Nieto (Madrid, 1807 - Madrid, 1845): Spanish painter and illustrator. He studied at the Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid, under Juan Antonio Ribera y FernÃ¡ndez and JosÃ© de Madrazo y Agudo. He worked independently of court circles and achieved some fame but nevertheless died in such poverty that his burial was paid for by friends. He is often described as the last of the followers of Goya, in whose Caprichos and drawings he found inspiration for the genre scenes for which he became best known. Of these scenes of everyday life and customs the more interesting include The Beating (Madrid, CasÃ³n del Buen Retiro) and Galician with Puppets (c. 1835; Madrid, CasÃ³n del Buen Retiro. Alenza y Nieto's numerous drawings include the illustrations for Alain-RenÃ© Lesage's Gil Blas (Madrid, 1840), for an edition of the poems of Francisco de Quevedo published by Castello and for the reviews Semanario pintoresco and El Reflejo. The painting Triumph of David (1842; Madrid, Real Academia de San Fernando) led to his election as an AcadÃ©mico de MÃ©rito at the Real Academia de San Fernando in 1842, and he produced such portraits as that of Alejandro de la PeÃ±a (Madrid, Real Acadademia de San Fernando) and a Self-portrait (Madrid, CasÃ³n del Buen Retiro). His two canvases entitled Satire on Romantic Suicide (Madrid, Museo RomÃ¡ntico) are perhaps the most characteristic of his works.
Alexandre Alexeïeff (Kazan, Russia, 1901 – Paris, 1982): Russian Empire-born artist, filmmaker and illustrator who lived and worked mainly in Paris. He and his second wife Claire Parker (1906–1981) are credited with inventing the pinscreen as well as the animation technique totalization. In all Alexeïeff produced 6 films on the pinscreen, 41 advertising films and illustrated 41 books.
Henry Alken (1785 – 1851): English painter, engraver and acquafortist. Son of artist Samuel Alken, he was specialized in hunting and sporting scenes. In 1801 and 1822 he exposed two portraits at the Royal Academy of London. Alken explores the comic side of riding in a series of prints depicting the follies and foibles of aristocrats on their weekend outings. He worked in London and the provinces and was prolific in a variety of media, including painting, etching and watercolor. Trained as a miniature painter, his works always had a graphic precision. He was employed by sporting periodicals as an illustrator and provided plates for the “National Sports of Great Britain” (London, 1821) [Benezit I, 116]
Nicolás Jiménez Caballero Navarro Alpériz (Sevilla, 1869 – 1925) [AKA: Nicolás Alpériz]: Painter. Nicolás Alpériz, disciple of Eduardo Cano in Sevilla, took part at the National Exposition of Madrid in 1895, beeing awarded a second medal. He also exhibited at the Salon of Munich in 1909 and, between 1913 and 1914, at the Salon of French Artists [Benezit, I, 134]
Manuel Ángel Álvarez (La Guardia, 1855 – 1921): History and genre painter, portraitist and illustrator. Manuel Ángel Álvarez began to study painting at San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid in 1873. Two years later, in 1875, he left Spain and settled in La Habana, where he continued working as a painter; there, Álvarez achieved certain success with paintings as Doña Leonor Téllez, reina de Portugal, prisionera en el Convento de Tordesillas. Since 1881, back in Madrid, he took part in several National Exhibitions and continued painting History and genre subjects and portraits (Alfonso XII); however, the lack of success forced him to work also as an artistic writer/editor for the journals Nuevo Mundo and El Liberal and as an illustrator for the editorial Calleja. Álvarez painted scenes from Don Quixote in several occasions, as Penitencia de don Quijote (1901) or Escena de “El Quijote” (1920); even a “portrait” of Alonso de Quijano (1905) [Benezit I, 190]
Blas Ametller (Barcelona, 1768 â Madrid, 1841): Designer and burin engraver. Ametller was an assistant professor at the Escuela de Artes (Barcelona, 1787) and received a scholarship from the Junta de Comercio to study engraving in Madrid (1790â95) under Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1793, the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) awarded him a first prize for engraving the portrait of Ventura RodrÃguez after Goyaâs painting and, in 1797, he was made an academician. He produced book illustrations, religious engravings and reproductions of paintings. He engraved the portraits of Goya, Murillo, Ribera and VelÃ¡zquez. His success led to his appointment as Grabador de CÃ¡mara in 1815, in which position he executed a portrait of Ferdinand VII (1821) after Vicente LÃ³pez y PortaÃ±aâs drawings. After Salvador Carmonaâs death in 1820, Ametller was made Director de Grabado al buril at the Royal Academy, a post he held until his death. He engraved plates for several Don Quixote editions (Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 â 1798; Madrid: Sancha, 1798 â 1799; Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1819) [Benezit I, 156]
More information at: www.groveart.com
William Angus (1752 - 1821): Engraver and landscape designer. He was disciple of the engraver William Walker (Thirsk, 1729 – London, 1793). William Angus engraved many illustrations of mansion-houses in England and Wales; he also took part in several topographical publications and engraved some plates for The Dramatic Works of Shakespeare and some portraits for European Magazine. Some of his engravings are after his own designs; others after Stothard’s, Paul Sandby’s, Edward Daynes’ and George Samuel’s. His style is delicate and pleasant. [Benezit I, 201]
Edward Ardizzone (Haiphong, Tonkin, French Indo-China, 1900 - 1979): Illustrator and writer. Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone was brought up in the English countryside, but he lived in London. After six years as a statistical clerk in a city office, he became a full-time artist in 1926. Since then, he had many one-man shows, and his pictures were bought and exhibited by the Tate and provincial galleries. But it was as an illustrator of books that he was best known, having over seventy to his credit. He himself wrote and illustrated eight books for young children, among them the beloved Tim series, and in 1957 was awarded the Kate Greenaway medal for Tim All Alone. During the war he was an official war artist, serving in France, North Africa, Sicily, Italy and Germany.
Pedro Arnal (Madrid, 1735 – 1805): Architect and designer.
Herman Ilfeld Bacharach (USA, 1899 – 1976): American artist, illustrator and book designer. Bacharach, who as an artist achieved no fame, illustrated books for Grossett and Dunlap and Houghton Mifflin including The Adventures of Pinocchio (1927). He was also a collector of illustrated books, assembling over 275 volumes representing almost every major illustrator of the early 20th century. This collection, labelled the Herman Ilfeld Bacharach Collection, is in the New Mexico State Library since 1979 [http://lib.nmsu.edu]
Stephen Baghot de la Bere (1877 – 1927): English illustrator and painter. Baghot de la Bere, member of “The London Sketch Club”, was a skilful drawer, well-known for his humoristic illustrations including the I World War. He illustrated Ascott R. Hope’s The Adventures of Punch, The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes, his fortune and adversities –both with twelve illustrations–, and Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. The National Portrait Gallery (London) keeps a group portrait of “The Sketch Club” with Baghot de la Bere (1921).
Louis Bailly (Paris, 1875-Paris, 1958): Born in Paris, Louis Bailly is a painter and illustrator who was initially trained by Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant, like many other employees of L'Illustration. He illustrated many books for major publishers of the day, as Mame, Delagrave or Hachette, Gauthier-Languereau, Fayard. He collaborated on L'Illustration in 1920-1930 and gave numerous drawings to illustrate stories or novels. At the same time, he worked for The Graphic, London, and participated in the ABC school, where he became director of education at the same time as editor of the journal home ABC Magazine. He was also a contributor to Figaro Illustré, Rire, La Caricature, La baïonnette and many other titles.
Ricardo Balaca y Canseco (Lisbon, 1844 – 1880): Painter of portraits and battles and illustrator. He was son and disciple of the painter and miniaturist José Balaca (Cartagena, 1810 – Madrid, 1869). Ricardo Balaca received his art instruction in Lisbon, London, Paris and Madrid, where he went to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. When he was only 18 years old, his painting The Battle of Almansa (1861, Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid) was awarded with a Mención Ordinaria at the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes. He also painted Despedida de Colón en el Puerto de Palos and Colón recibido in Barcelona por los Reyes Católicos. He designed several illustrations for illustrated journals and books [Benezit I, 302]
Fernando Baldi (20th century): Illustrator working in Italy around 1950.
Joaquín Ballester (1741 – 1795): Burin engraver and portraitist. In 1778, he became director of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia). He was a remarkable portraitist. He engraved The dead Christ supported by an angel after Alonso Cano and some designs after Murillo [Benezit I, 407]
Juan Barcelón (Lorca, 1739 – Madrid, 1801): Burin engraver and painter. He studied drawing at Murcia with the sculptor Salcillo. In 1759, Barcelón moved to Madrid, where he won a third class prize of painting at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). In 1762, he got a pension to study burin engraving with Juan Bernabé Palomino (1692 – 1777; Palomino’s son, Juan Fernando Palomino, also took part in Madrid: Ibarra, 1780). In collaboration with Nicolas Bassanti, Barcelón engraved 24 plates after Luca Giordano. He also engraved the portrait of Juan de Torquemada after José Maea. In 1777, he received the grade of Academician of Merit [Benezit I, 437]
Vicente Barneto y Vázquez (Jerez de los Caballeros, 19th century): Spanish History and genre painter. Barneto made his debut at the National Exposition of Fine Arts of Madrid in 1871 with Interior del Coliseo Flavio. He exhibited again at the National Exposition in 1876; La condenación de don Juan and Sesión de consejo en un pueblo de Extramadura. He also made some designs for the publication La Ilustración Católica [Benezit I, 452]
Bernard Baron (Paris, 1696 – London, 1762 or 1766): Acquafortist and burin engraver. Bernard Baron, Nicolas Tardie’s disciple, stood out as engraver for the printer Boydell in London. He worked in this city until this death [Benezit 1976, I, 455]
Bernardo Barranco (18th century): Spanish painter during the second half of the 18th century. Benezit mistakes his name by Pedro [Benezit I, 49]
Laureano Barrau (Barcelona, 1864 – Ibiza, 1957) [AKA: Laureano Barrau Buñol]: Painter and portraitist. Barrau studied in Barcelona under A. Caba and in Paris under Gérome, but worked in Madrid. Being eighteen years old he exhibited An atelier of artists. He took part at the Club of watercolorists in Barcelona, the Exhibition of Barcelona (1892) and the one of Madrid (1904). He also became a member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts (Paris) [Benezit I, 460]
M. N. Bate (London, 19th century): Engraver and portraitist working in London. He exhibited at the Royal Academy of London in 1821. [Benezit: I, 505]
Antoni Batllori i Jofré (Barcelona, 1915 - Barcelona, 1999): Illustrator and comic artist. Batllori drew for such magazines as Atalaya and En Patufet, before beginning a cooperation with the new run of the famous TBO magazine in the late 1940s, for which he was one of the few realistic artists.
Maurice Beaufumé (20th century): Watercolorist working in Paris around 1945. Beaufumé was specialized in coloring book illustrations using stencils (in pochoir).
P. Bedini (Italy, 19th century): Illustrator working in Venice around 1848.
Manuel Benedito Vives (Valencia, 1875 – Madrid, 1963): Landscape, seascape and genre painter. Manuel Benedito, disciple of Joaquín Sorolla, enrolled in 1888 in the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts of Valencia, where he studied and worked under the guidance of Salvá y Vilá, learning and achieving a refined technique which was to be standard in his paintings. In 1894, after finishing his studies, he joined Joaquín Sorolla's workshop and moved to Madrid with his master, where, as he worked and learned in his studies, he illustrated for the magazines La Revista Moderna and Blanco y Negro. Given a scholarship, between 1900 and 1904 Benedito studied at the Spanish Academy of Fine Arts in Rome; then, he traveled through France, Belgium and Holland, finally taking up residence in Volendam in 1909. In his artistic maturity, he focused on portrait and cynegetic still-life, without forgetting local characters and landscapes. In 1923 he became a member of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts and, one year later, Professor in color and composition in the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes of Madrid, substituting master Sorolla. In 1925 he was named Miembro Correspondiente of the Hispanic Society of New York, in 1935 Member of the National Academy of the Arts of Lisbon and, in 1941, President of the Sorolla Museum. His paintings have been internationally recognized, winning many medals and a series of honors both in Spain and abroad (Santiago de Chile, Munich, Buenos Aires, Brussels...); he also received the Cruz de Alfonso X El Sabio and the Légion d’Honneur (1919) [Benezit IV, 478]
Fritz Bergen (Dessau, 1857 – 1941): Painter and designer. Fritz Bergen studied at the Academy of Leipzig and worked in Munich as a portraitist. He is the author of many calendars and illustrations meant for wood etching for young readers. Among his works, the illustrations for Hans Christian Andersen’s 35 Marchen (1909), Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Onkel Toms Hutte (1881) and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1912) [Benezit I, 652]
Daniel Berger (Berlin, 1744 - ?, 1824): Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. He was son and disciple of the engraver Fried-Gott. Berger. Berger was instructed in design by La Sueur at the Academy of Berlin and, when he was 20 years old, he entered G.-F. Schmidt’s atelier. Between 1786 and 1797, he exposed at the Academy of Berlin and, in 1778, he became a member of the Academy and, then, a professor [Benezit I, 652]
Piero Bernardini (Florence, 1891 - 1974): Italian illustrator. [http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/piero-bernardini_(Dizionario-Biografico)/]
A. Berselli (Italy, 19th century): Illustrator working in Venice around 1848.
Albert d'Arnoux 'Bertall' (Paris, 1820 – 1882): Wood-engraver, lithographer, photographer and designer. He took his pen name “Bertall” (using the same letters of his name, Albert) following Balzac’s advice, the books of whom he illustrated. Prolific humorist and illustrator, he worked for Barba editors, who published novels in two columns, also called "a quatre sous". He also published in Illustration, Le Grelot, Magasin Pittoresque, Journal de la Jeunesse and Journal pour rire. Bertall wrote and illustrated his own books, which Hachette collected in a series intended for young readers; some of his titles are Cahier des charges des chemins de fer (1847), Douze histoires pour les enfants de quatre à huit ans, Les Enfants d'aujourd'hui (1848), Les Infortunes de Touche-à-Tout (1861), Les Communeux de Paris: Types, Physionomies, Caractères (1871), Les Contes de ma mère (1877), La Vigne. Voyage autour des vins de France. Étude physiologique, anecdotique. historique, humoristique et même scientifique (1878) and Mademoiselle Jacasse (1879). He also illustrated Hans Christian Andersen’s Contes choisis, Miguel Cervantes’s Don Quichotte (1863), James Fenimore Cooper’s Oeuvres (1836), Paul Féval’s Les Contes de nos pères, Jacob et Wilhelm Grimm’s Contes, Histoire de Casse-noisette (adaptation of Ernest Theodor Wilhelm Hoffman's tale), J. Macé’s Contes du petit château (1876), Comtesse de Ségur’s Les Petites filles modèles and Les Vacances, P.J. Stahl’s Aventures de Monsieur Tom Pouce (1878) and Madame de Stolz’ Les Poches de mon Oncle. As a photographer, Bertall collaborated with Hippolyte Bayard in 1855 and settled in Paris in 1866, becoming a successful portraitist (Benezit I, 687). [Benezit I, 687]
Auguste Henri Berthoud (Paris or NeuchÃÂ¢tel, 1829 - NeuchÃÂ¢tel, 1887): Landscape painter and engraver. Berthoud was a pupil of the Art school of Paris in the studio of Ary Scheffer (1795-1858) and EugÃÂ¨ne Lepoittevin (1806-1870); his principal Master was Corot, whose close friend he was. In 1852 he settled in Lausanne.
Gonzalo Bilbao Martínez (Sevilla, 1860 - Madrid, 1938): Genre painter. Gonzalo Bilbao first studied law and music, but, thanks to José Jiménez Aranda, he alternated these studies with an artistic formation. In 1880, after finishing his law studies, he traveled to Italy and France with Jiménez Aranda, visiting museums and some of the ateliers of French artists and Spanish painters granted to work there. Bilbao remained in Italy for three years working with José Villegas Cordero; settled in Rome, he traveled also to Naples and Venice, painting urban and country views. Back to Spain in 1884, and unable to stay in Sevilla for a long period of time, he traveled across the whole country looking for landscapes to inspire him, being specially captivated by Toledo and Segovia. Then, he also visited Morocco, France again and Munich, where he sold some of the paintings done in Africa. After José Jiménez’ death in 1903, Gonzalo Bilbao succeeded him as painting professor at the School of Fine Arts in Sevilla. He was widely awarded at different expositions both in Spain (1887, second medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts; 1891, third medal at the International Exposition of Barcelona; 1901, first medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts; 1915, medal of honor at the National Exposition of Fine Arts;...) and abroad (1889, third medal at the Universal Exposition of Paris; 1893, a medal at the Universal Exposition of Chicago; 1899, golden medal at the International Exposition of Berlin; 1915, first medal at the International Exposition of Fine Arts of San Francisco;...) [Benezit II, 32]
Dmitry Bisti (Sevastopol, 1925 - 1990): Dmitry Spiridonovich Bisti was born in 1925 in Sevastopol. He graduated from the Moscow Polygraphic Institute in 1952. The creative manner of the artist and his understanding of the role of a book designer emerged already in the first books illustrated by him, Lust for Life by I. Stone, Novels by P. Merimee, Verses and Poems by E. Bagritsky were published in early 1960-s. The critic Mikhail Lazarev said: "Bisti’s compositions fit in the space of the entire book, not just the machine-sheet. They don’t illustrate certain plots, but structurally and graphically interpret the literary source in general. Each illustration finds its exact place in the text in accordance with the development of the plot. He creates the fonts, builds the layout and designs all the elements of the book". Mastering drawing, wood engraving and etching, the artist has illustrated numerous works of ancient and medieval literature, Russian and foreign classics, books for children. Among them Akutagawa’s novels, Virgil's Aeneid, The Song of Roland and The Lay of the Cid, Woe from Wit by Griboedov, A Journey Beyond the Three Seas by Afanasij Nikitin, The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, etc. They have become classics of the national book graphics. Tragic or ironic, Bisti’s illustrations are always temperamental, highly expressive and emotional. These features are most characteristic to the design of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, Apuleius’s Metamorphoses, Odoevsky’s stories. A significant part of Bisti’s work is devoted to book design, working with fonts, layout design, design of cover pages, binders and jackets. In the middle 1970-s Bisti headed the typography of 200 volume series "Library of World Literature". He was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1978 and received the title of People's Artist of Russia in 1984. In 1988 he became a vice-president of the Academy of Fine Arts. The works of this remarkable artist are owned by the Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow, Russia), Russian Museum (St.Petersburg, Russia) and by numerous private collectors in Russia and abroad. Dmitry Bisti’s illustrations to Kotlyarevsky’s Eneyida are published in Vita Nova publishing house for the first time. [http://www.vitanova.ru/en/gallery/artists/artist37.html]
F. M. B. Blaikie (20th century): Illustrator working in London around 1910. He illustrated, among other works, The Arabian Nights and Gulliver's travels.
William Blake (London, 1757 – London, 1827): Painter, engraver and poet. At the age of ten, with the support of his family, Blake enrolled in a drawing school run by Henry Pars, and at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to James Basire, engraver to the Society of Antiquaries and the Royal Society. Although it is likely that he did a fair amount of engraving, as an apprentice he was not encouraged to develop his own individual style, and it is hard for scholars to discern the work that he did. After seven years Blake completed his apprenticeship and entered the Royal Academy, but the education was not to his liking. Joshua Reynolds, the Academy's first president, told him to work with "less extravagance and more simplicity". At the Academy, he met Barry, Fuseli, Mortimer, Flaxman and Stothard (Benezit II, 63). Blake earned his keep as a journeyman copy engraver. He worked on publishing projects, books, and prints such as stipple engravings of paintings by the French Rococo painter Jean-Antoine Watteau. He engraved plates for Cervantes's Don Quixote (in 1782, being 25 years old), Sterne's Sentimental Journey, and for Wedgwood catalog advertising.
More information at: www.blakearchive.org (Accessed September 26, 2006)
Quentin Blake (Sidcup, 1932 - ...): Quentin Blake was born in 1932 and has drawn ever since he can remember. He went to Chislehurst and Sidcup Grammar School before studying English at Downing College, Cambridge. After National Service he did a postgraduate teaching diploma at the University of London, followed by life-classes at Chelsea Art School.He has always made his living as an illustrator, as well as teaching for over twenty years at the Royal College of Art, where he was head of the Illustration department from 1978 to 1986. His first drawings were published in Punch while he was 16 and still at school. He continued to draw for Punch, The Spectator and other magazines over many years, while at the same time entering the world of children's books with A Drink of Water by John Yeoman in 1960. He is known for his collaboration with writers such as Russell Hoban, Joan Aiken, Michael Rosen, John Yeoman and, most famously, Roald Dahl. He has also illustrated classic children's books, and created much-loved characters of his own, including Mister Magnolia and Mrs Armitage. Since the 1990s Quentin Blake has had an additional career as exhibition curator, curating shows in, among other places, the National Gallery, the British Library and the Musée du Petit Palais in Paris. Recently he has also started an illustration project for hospitals and his work can be seen in the wards and public spaces of several London hospitals and mental health units. [http://www.quentinblake.com]
Plácido Blanco (Mexico, (c.1825-c.1895)): Illustrator and lithographer. Blanco is the author of several illustrations for El Gallo Pitagórico. He established his own lithography printing shop in Mexico in 1848.
Gus Bofa (Brive-la-Gaillarde, 1883 – Aubagne, 1968): Painter, designer and illustrator. His real name was Gustave Blanchot. Gus Bofa started his career when, being 17 years old, his first illustration was bought and published by the magazine Sourire. He was co-director of the Office d'Art et Publicité in Paris, where he achieved a good reputation as poster designer. He also made posters for the magazines Le Rire, of which he became its director in 1908, and Sourire, also directed by him since 1912. Later, thanks to Pierre Mac Olan, literary editor of Edition Français Illustrée, La Banderole and Renaissance du Livre, Bofa began a new carrier as an illustrator. He illustrated works by contemporary authors, such as Mac Olan, Courteline, Henri Béraud (Le Martyre de l’Obése) or Raymond Hesse, and also by classical writers, such as Cervantes (Don Quichotte), La Fontaine (Les Fables), Voltaire, Swift (Conseils aux domestiques), Thomas de Quincey (Del’Assassinat consideré comme un des Beaux-Arts), Edgar Allan Poe (Histoires extraordinaires) or Mark Twain. He also published in magazines like La Joie des Enfants and L'Illustré à Cinq Centimes. During the First World War Gus Bofa was drafted and he nearly lost his leg, returning to Paris to work for La Baïonette, where he made several comics and illustrations, such as 'Chez les Toubibs', which relates his stay in the army hospital. Gus Boga has been considered as one of the most important humorist designers in the first half of the 20th century [Benezit II, 114; http://lambiek.net/artists/b/bofa_gus.htm; http://www.gusbofa.com]
José Camarón Bonanat or Boronat (Segorbe, 1730 – Valencia, 1803) [AKA: José Camarón Boronat]: Painter. He was one of the best painters of the Valencia school. He began working under his father’s direction, the sculptor Nicolás Camarón (1692 – 1767); then, he left sculpture and just worked as a painter. He was a member of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia) and became its director in 1790. Camarón, who was a very prolific painter, followed Luis Paret’s baroque style. His son, José Juan Camarón, was a painter too; they both made the paintings for the church of San Francisco El Grande (Madrid, 1788 – 1789) [Benezit II, 473]
Bonard (Paris, 18th century) [AKA: Bonnard]: Illustrator working in Paris around 1732.
Richard Parkes Bonington (Arnold, Nottingham, 1801 – London, 1828): Landscape painter. Bonington learned watercolor painting from his father and exhibited paintings at the Liverpool Academy at age 11. His family relocated to Calais (France) late in 1817 to start a lacemaking factory. There, Bonington came under the casual tutelage of Louis Francia (1772 – 1839). In 1818 the family moved to Paris to open a lace retail outlet, and within a year Bonington had met Eugène Delacroix and English art students such as James Roberts Jr. while copying Dutch landscape and genre paintings in the Louvre. At Roberts's urging, Bonington enrolled in studies at the atelier of Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771 – 1835), then the most prestigious art pedagogue in Paris, and at the École des Beaux-Arts. But he also began landscape sketching tours in the suburbs and countryside around Paris, recording genre scenes of fish markets and architectural ruins, and selling the paintings to Parisian art dealers. He first exhibited two paintings at the Paris Salon of 1822 (Vue prise á Lillebonne and Vue prise au Havre); both were purchased by the Société des Amis des Arts, a group of influential connoisseurs. By 1823 he was working closely with Francia (then in Paris) to prepare his own lithographic series on architectural ruins, Restes et Fragmens (Remnants and Fragments); but he also contributed to other architectural publications, studied medieval armor and dress for historical and costume paintings, began painting in oils, and toured northern France with an extended stay in Dunkurque. Every summer Bonington took off on a sketching tour, and lithographs from his drawings appeared in Baron Taylor's Voyages pittoresques dans l'ancienne France. After the famous Salon of 1824, where he received a gold medal along with John Constable and Anthony Copley Fielding, demand for his work increased significantly. Bonington traveled to London in 1825 where he studied historical costumes in Westminster, met important artists, publishers and art dealers, and toured along the northern coast with Eugène Isabey and Delacroix; during this travel, Bonington got interested in History painting (François I and the Queen of Navarre and Henry IV and the Spanish Ambassador). In 1826 he traveled with Delacroix's friend Baron Rivet to Italy (Naples, Florence, Milan, Venice...), where his work took on a new splendor and poignancy. There he made some of his finest paintings, such as View of the Grand Canal and View of the Dux Palace. By this time Bonington was probably already suffering from tuberculosis, the "white plague" of the 19th century. He returned to England in 1827 and died in London on Sept. 28, 1828, at the age of 26. Almost immediately from the moment his pictures were publicly exhibited in 1822, Bonington was hailed as a leading talent among the new generation of painters who reacted to the strictures of academic painting that derived from the severe, classicizing style of Jacques-Louis David (1748 - 1825), the leading artist of the French Revolutionary era. Against this style, which was limited to parables from Plutarch, stiff aristocratic portraits and postcards from the Roman countryside, the new generation favored genre paintings of fish markets, fields and local laborers painted with emotion and the "atmosphere" of natural effects of light and weather [Benezit II, pp. 152-154; www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/artist08.html ]
Núria Bordas Suárez-Múrias (1926-2008): Spanish illustrator and painter. She collaborated with La Vanguardia.
Jean-Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent (Agen, 1780 – Paris, 1846): French naturalist. He was sent as naturalist with Captain Nicolas Baudin's expedition to Australia in 1798, but left the vessel at Mauritius, and spent two years in exploring Reunion and other islands. Joining the army on his return, he was present at the battle of Ulm and battle of Austerlitz, and in 1808 went to Spain with Marshal Soult. His attachment to the Napoleonic dynasty and dislike to the Bourbons were shown in various ways during 1815, and his name was consequently placed on the list of the proscribed; but after wandering in disguise from place to place he was allowed quietly to return to Paris in 1820. In 1829 he was placed at the head of a scientific expedition to the Peloponnessus, and in 1839 he had charge of the exploration of Algeria. He was editor of the Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle, and among his separate productions were: Essais sur les Iles Fortunées (1802); Voyage dans les Iles d'Afrique (1803); Voyage souterrain, ou description du plateau de Saint-Pierre de Maestricht et de ses vastes cryptes (1821); L'Homme, essai zoologique sur le genre humain (1827); Resume de la géographie de la Peninsule (1838).
Jean de Bosschère (Uccle, 1881 - 1953): Belgian engraver, illustrator poet and writer. Bosschere lived and worked in Belgium, France, Italy and England. He made his debut in 1907 and illustrated several works, such as Ovidio's Amores and O. Wilde's Poems. He translated into English Flaubert's La Premiere Tentation de Saint Antoine. [Benezit II, 196]
François Boucher (Paris, 1703 – Paris, 1770): Painter, engraver and successful portraitist. Boucher was instructed by his father and by Le Moine. In 1721, he designed the illustrations for Daniel’s “History of France”, engraved by Baquoy. He engraved several Watteau’s designs by order of M. de Julienne. In 1723, Boucher won the first prize of the Academy with his “Evilmerodach déliverant Joaquim” ; he was only twenty years old. Favored by the Duke of Antin and pensioned by the king, he traveled to Rome with Carle van Loo; in Rome, he received Albani, Tiepolo and Baroccio’s influence. In 1731, he became a member of the Academy painting “Renaud et Armide”; in 1735, professor assistant; in 1737, professor; in 1761, president assistant; in 1761, president; and, in 1765, director. He worked for the tapestries manufacture in Beauvais too [Benezit II, 210-212]
Frederic Bouchot (1798 - ?): Designer, wood engraver and lithographer. Bouchot worked for numerous Parisian magazines, did many titles for musical pieces and collaborated on comical albums, as Caricature, Journal pour rire or Charivarí; he engraved Daumier’s designs. [Benezit II, 214]
Frederik Bouttats (? - 1676) [AKA: Frederik Bouttats "the Young"]: Engraver in Amberes, he is one of the most important of 17th century. He engraved portraits of artists and personalities of his own time (Louis XIII, Felipe II King of Spain, Cristina Queen of Sweden, Cromwell, the Duke of Brabant, the architect L. van Heil, the painters J.-B. van Heil and David Ryckaert...), religious subjects and illustrations for several editions (Images of men of spirit, 1649). In 1643, he was part of the Guild of Saint Luke in Amberes. He had twenty-four sons and daughters; some of them were engravers for publishers in Amberes and Colonia [Benezit 1976, II, 249]
José María Bracho y Murillo (Sevilla, 19th century - ?): Painter and portraitist (well-known as painter of flowers and fruits). He exhibited in Madrid since 1858, also in Cádiz (1860), Paris (1878) and Gibraltar (1879) [Benezit II, 262]
Frank Brangwyn (Bruges, 1867 - Ditchling, 1956): Artist, painter, water colourist, virtuoso engraver and illustrator, and progressive designer. Frank Brangwyn received some artistic training, probably from his father, and later from Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo and in the workshops of William Morris, but he was largely an autodidact without a formal artistic education. When, at the age of seventeen, one of his paintings was accepted at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, he was strengthened in his conviction to become an artist. His choice of approaches was eclectic: He was like a jackdaw of art, taking the best and brightest jewels of each movement and then re-creating them in his own inimitable style. The chiaroscuro contrasts in his etchings are reminiscent of Giovanni Battista Piranesi or Rembrandt. His work has been compared to Oriental carpets, Italian Renaissance artists and the Old Masters, he was linked to various movements including Arts and Crafts, Vienna Secessionists, French Impressionists, the Nabis and Art Nouveau and his paintings show fleeting references to colleagues including Sir Alfred East, Dudley Hardy and Arthur Melville, but he was in essence his own man [Benezit: II, 276-277]
Henri Bressler (France, 19th century): Illustrator working in Limoges around 1889.
Henry Matthew Brock (Cambridge, 1875 - 1960): Book illustrator, landscape painter and watercolorist. Brock, the younger brother of the artist Charles Edmund Brock, lived and studied in Cambridge, becoming a prolific and successful illustrator during the 1890s. as well as working for many periodicals (Punch) and illustrating numerous books; he also designed posters for the D'Oyly Carteworked. He worked for Seeley & Co. illustrating several books –most of them abridged children’s editions– with sets of eight illustrations, such as The Pilgrim’s progress, Ben Hur, Westward ho!, John Halifax, Gentleman, Robinson Crusoe, Little women and good wives, The History of Henry Esmond, The Swiss Family Robinson, Hans Andersen’s fairy tales and The Days of Bruce: a story from Scottish History. He also illustrated Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations for Gresham Publishing Company (1901-3) and The Scarlet Pimpernel for Dodd, Mead and Co. (1964) [Benezit II, 323]
W. H. Brown (working in London by the end of the 18th century): English illustrator. He took part in Cooke’s edition of Don Quixote (c. 1797).
José Brunete (Madrid, 1747 – ¿?): Painter and engraver. One of his more known works is ¨Diana’s bath” [Benezit II, 361]
Guido Bruveris (Riga, Lettonia, 1922 - ?): Illustrator and painter. Guido Bruveris studied at the National Fine Arts Academy of Lettonia. Between 1945 and 1948, he lived in Austria, where he worked as an illustrator for several magazines. In 1949, he moved and settled in Argentina; here, he collaborated with El Hogar, Caras y Carretas and Mundo Argentino.
Bernard Buffet (Paris, 1928 - Tourtour, 1999): French painter of Expressionism. Buffet studied art in Paris at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts (National School of the Fine Arts) and worked in the studio of the painter Eugène Narbonne. Among his classmates were Maurice Boitel and Louis Vuillermoz. Sustained by the picture-dealer Maurice Garnier, Buffet produced religious pieces, landscapes, portraits and still-lifes. In 1946, he had his first painting shown, a self-portrait, at the Salon des Moins de Trente Ans at the Galerie Beaux-Arts. He had at least one major exhibition every year. Buffet illustrated Les Chants de Maldoror written by Comte de Lautréamont in 1952. In 1955, he was awarded the first prize by the magazine Connaissance des arts, which named the 10 best post-war artists. In 1958, at the age of 30, the first retrospective of his work was held at the Galerie Charpentier. In 1973 he was named "Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur", and, that same year, the Bernard Buffet Museum was founded by Kiichiro Okano, in Surugadaira, Japan. Buffet created more than 8,000 paintings and many prints as well.
Edmond-François Calvo (Elbeuf (Seine-Maritime), 1892 - 1958): Edmond-François Calvo was a grandmaster in animal comics, full of social criticism, such as his 1944 masterpiece La Bête est Mort, but also for his many series for the French press, like Patamousse and Moustache et Trottinette. While being a caricaturist for among others Le Canard Enchaîné, Calvo held several other jobs, including innkeeper and wood carver. In 1938, he started working for the Offenstadt/S.P.E. press group, contributing to the magazines Fillette (1938-41), L'Épatant (1938), L'As (1938-40), and Junior (with Le Chevalier Chantecler and D'Artagnan, 1938-42), as well as to several anthologies. He also produced albums, such as Robin des Bois, Les Voyages de Gulliver and three episodes of Patamouche. He also contributed to periodicals like Les Grandes Aventures ('Tom Mix'), France-Soir Jeudi ('Le Capitaine Fracasse'), Hardi les Gars! ('La Panthère Blanche'), King-Kong and the post-War edition of Fillette ('Mike et la Pantoufle'). Besides his work for S.P.E., he made La Croisière Fantastique, Croquemulot and Un Chasseur Sachant Chasser in the period 1942-43 for Éditions Sépia. Between 1944 and 1949, he made several works for G.P., including his most famous work La Bête est Morte. This brilliantly illustrated book, written by Victor Dancette and Jacques Zimmermann, depicted the second World War through the world of animals, in which the Germans appeared as wolves, the French as rabbits, Americans as buffaloes, and so on. Other publications Calvo made for G.P. were Anatomies Atomiques, Les Aventures de Rosalie, Monsieur Royal Présente, Grandeur et Décadente du Royaume des Bêtes and several adaptations of fairytales. Throughout the 1950s, he contributed to comics magazines like Tintin, Âmes Vaillantes and Coeurs Vaillants, as well as to the juvenile press. He conceived animal series like Cricri, Souris d'Appartement in Baby Journal and later Cricri Journal, Coq Hardi, Bravo! and Pierrot. He also made Moustache et Trottinette in among others Femmes d'Aujourd'hui (from 1953) and Coquin le Petit Cocker', which was written by Marijac and published by Éditions Gautier-Languereau and in the magazines Pierrot, La Semaine de Suzette and Fripounet et Marisette. Edmond-François Calvo left behind a large oeuvre, both as comic artist and sculptor, which influenced among others Albert Uderzo, Florence Cestac and Pirus. [http://www.lambiek.net/artists/c/calvo_ef.htm]
José Camarón y Boronat (Segorbe, 1730 – Valencia, 1803) [AKA: José Camarón Bonanat; José Camarón Boronat]: Painter. He was one of the best painters of the Valencia school. He began working under his father’s direction, the sculptor Nicolás Camarón (1692 – 1767); then, he left sculpture and just worked as a painter. He was a member of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia) and became its director in 1790. Camarón, who was a very prolific painter, followed Luis Paret’s baroque style. His son, José Juan Camarón, was a painter too; they both made the paintings for the church of San Francisco El Grande (Madrid, 1788 – 1789) [Benezit II, 473]
Eduardo Cano de la Peña (Madrid, 1823 - Sevilla, 1897): History painter. Cano began his art studies at the Royal School of the Three Noble Arts of Seville, and later he refined his painting skills in Madrid at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts under the direction of José and Federico Madrazo and Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fieve. Later he traveled to Paris, where he completed two of his most famous works, Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rabida, romantic style canvas with which he won the first medal at the National Exhibition of 1856 and is located in the Palace Senate (Madrid), and The Burial of Constable Don Alvaro de Luna, also first medal at the National Exhibition of 1857, currently on display at the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Back in Sevilla, he was appointed Curator of the Museum of Fine Arts in this city as well as color and composition professor at the School of Fine Arts in Seville. As a portrait painter, he made several works in this field as Portrait of Fernan Caballero, Portraiture in the studio of the painter or Portrait of a young man.
Héctor Alberto Capurro (Buenos Aires, 1928): Illustrator, muralist and painter. Héctor Alberto Capurro studied at the Taller de Artes Plásticas del Oeste between 1954 and 1958. In 1960, he began a study trip through Europe. In 1963 he was awarded the First Prize of the SAAP Autumn Salon and the Second Prized at the Salon in Rosario; in 1964, the third at the Salon in Santa Fe and the second at the Municipal Salon. He was director of the Ceramic School of the Fine Arts Academy in Necochea, of which he was its funder.
Carnicero (19th century): Illustration designer and engraver. Carnicero worked for different Spanish journals, History and Geography works and novels [Benezit II, 535]
Antonio Carnicero (Salamanca, 1748 – Madrid, 1814): Painter and illustration designer. He was son of the sculptor Alexandro Carnicero, Isidro Carnicero’s brother and disciple of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). After a period in Rome, he became a painter of Carlos III court. Some of his paintings are, at Prado Museum (Madrid), View of the Albufera and Ascent of a montgolfière; at the Academy, Godoy’s portrait; at Valencia, portraits of Carlos IV and María Luisa de Parma [Benezit II, 535]
Isidro Carnicero (Valladolid, 1736 – Madrid, 1804): Sculptor and illustration designer. He was son of the sculptor Alexandro Carnicero and Antonio Carnicero’s brother. Isidro Carnicero became a member, professor and director of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts [Benezit II, 535]
Isidro Carnicero (Valladolid, 1736 – Madrid, 1804): Sculptor and illustration designer. He was son of the sculptor Alexandro Carnicero and Antonio Carnicero’s brother. Isidro Carnicero became a member, professor and director of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts [Benezit II, 535]
Jean Louis Toussaint Caron (Paris, 1790 – Paris, 1832): Designer and burin engraver. He studied design with Coigny and Regnault and engraving with Etienne Frédéric Lignon. Caron, who exhibited at the Salon between 1824 and 1827, designed and engraved the portraits of Descartes and Boileau, and also engraved the one of the Duke Charles d’Orléans after Devéria’s design. He engraved illustrations for works by Voltaire, Rousseau and Cervantes too [Benezit II, 538]
José del Castillo (Madrid, 1737 – Madrid, 1793): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of José Romeo and was protected by José Carvajal, minister of State, who sent him to study at Rome. There, he worked with Corrado Gianquinto, Italian Rococo painter. During his second travel to Italy, his master was Reciado. When Castillo returned to Spain, he got the protection of the king, who ordered Meng to give Castillo work. He made some tapestry designs, portraits –Carlos III– and religious paintings for the royal convent of Las Salesas. He also engraved some designs after Luca Giordano, as Escape to Egypt, and after Cerezo, as Supper at Emaus. [Benezit II, 591]
Alberto Cedrón (Buenos Aires, 1937 - ?): Painter and muralist. Alberto Cedrón was a disciple of Horacio Butler. He exhibited his works in Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro. He was awarded the Second Prize in drawing at the Autumn Salon in 1962; the Third Prize in painting at the Mar del Plata Salon; First Golden Medal at the Drawers Salon by the journal El Mundo, and First Golden Medal at the National Salon. He painted several murals in Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro.
Warren Chappell (Richmond, 1904 – Charlottesville, 1991): Illustrator, graphic artist, book and type designer and author. Chappell studied at the Art Students' League under Boardman Robinson (later returning there to teach), and with Rudolf Koch at the Offenbacher Werkstatt in Mainz (Germany) as a punch cutter and type designer, returning there just before World War II to work on the typeface Trajanus. He returned to the US at the onset of the war and devoted himself to book design and illustration, being closely associated with the publisher Alfred A. Knopf, for whom he designed many books. As an author, he wrote The Anatomy of Lettering (1934), A Short History of the printed Book (1970) and The Living Alphabet (1975). As an illustrator, Chappell designed illustrations for Don Quixote (c. 1939), Peter and the Wolf (1940), Saroyan’s Fables (1941), Hansel and Gretel (1944), The Nutcracker (1958), They Say Stories (1960) and Sleeping Beauty (1961).
Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet (París, 1792 – París, 1845): Designer, engraver and painter, more especially of military subjects. He was the son of a dragoon in the Republican army, whose death in the ranks left the widow and orphan in very poor circumstances, so Charlet initiated a military career. He served in the National Guard in 1814, fought bravely at the Barrière de Clichy, and, being thus unacceptable to the Bourbon party, was dismissed from the city administration in 1816. He then, having from a very early age had a propensity for drawing, entered the atelier of the distinguished painter Baron Gros, and soon began issuing the first of those lithographed designs which eventually brought him renown. His Grenadier de Waterloo (1817) with the motto "La Garde meurt et ne se rend pas" was particularly popular. It was only towards 1822, however, that he began to be successful in a professional sense. Lithographs (about 2.000 altogether), water-colors, sepia-drawings, numerous oil sketches, and a few etchings followed one another rapidly; there were also three exhibited oil pictures, the first of which was especially admired Episode in the Campaign of Russia (1836), the Passage of the Rhine by Moreau (1837) and Wounded Soldiers Halting in a Ravine (1843). Besides the military subjects in which he particularly delighted, Charlet designed many subjects of town life and peasant life, the ways of children, etc., with much wit and whim in the descriptive mottoes. One of the most famous sets is the Vie civile, politique et militaire du Caporal Valentin (50 lithographs, dating from 1838 to 1842). Since 1838, he worked as a professor of design at the École Polytechnique. The painters Géricault and Delacroix admired him [Benezit II, 674; I273-285]
Charles Abraham Chasselat (Paris, 1782 – Paris, 1843): Painter, designer and lithographer. Charles Abraham Chasselat, disciple of his father, Pierre Chasselat (1753 – 1814), exhibited at the Salon between 1812 and 1842. He illustrated works by Racine, Molière, Voltaire and Cervantes; also the Contes des Mille et Une Nuits and Bouilly’s Contes aux Enfants de France. His son, Henri Jean Chasselat, was a painter too (1813 – 1880) [Benezit II, 688]
Édouard Chimot (Lille, 1880 - Paris, 1959): French artist, illustrator and editor. Chimot's career reached its peak in the 1920s in Paris, through the publication of fine quality art-printed books. As artist his own work occupies a characteristic place, but as editor also his role was extremely important in bringing together some of the outstanding talents of that distinctive period in French art and providing the commissions upon which the development of their work in a formal context occurred.
Florence Choate (USA, 20th century): American painter and illustrator. Florence Choate worked with Elizabeth Curtis illustrating children’s books mainly. Some of their best known works are the illustrations for Mary Graham Bonner’s Daddy’s bedtime fairy stories (1916), for Wonder book of Mother Goose (c. 1919) and for Edwards Clayton’s A treasury of Heroes and Heroines (1920).
Daniel-Nicolas Chodowiecki (Dantzig, 1726 – Berlin, 1801): Painter, engraver, illustrator and miniaturist. Born in Poland, in 1743 he arrived to Berlin. He was instructed in art by Haid and B. Rode, although Chodowiecki has been mainly considered a self-taught person. He succeeded as an illustrator for the Almanac of the Academy of Berlin; he designed and engraved plates with scenes from Jesus Christ’s life, Cervantes’ Don Quixote (1771) and others. In 1764, he became a member of the Academy of Berlin and a professor. As a painter, he was less successful. He painted great history compositions and genre scenes following Greuze and Pater’s style. His best works are his engravings (circa 2.896); illustrations for Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1772), Goethe’s Werther (1776), Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1778), Macbeth (1784), Henry IV (1785), The Merry Wives of Windsor (1786), Coriolanus (1786) and The Tempest (1787), works of Voltaire, Lessing, La Sage, Schiller, Rousseau, Lavater and others. The plates for Lavater’s Physiognomic Fragments (1775) took Chodowiechi 15 years [Benezit III, 9-10; Lenaghan 2003, 241-242]
Louis Choquet (? – c. 1825): Painter, miniaturist and designer. Choquet, Aubry’s disciple, exhibited miniatures, designs and vignettes at the Salon of Paris between 1808 and 1824. He illustrated works of Lesage, Marmotel, Florian, Fielding and others [Benezit III, 12]
Rasmus Christiansen (1863 - 1940): Danish illustrator and painter.
Charles-Nicolas Cochin père (Paris, 1688 – Paris, 1754): Engraver and painter. He belongs to an important family of engravers and painters; his father, Charles Cochin, was a painter. Until he was twenty-two years old, he worked as a painter, then as an engraver. He engraved portraits and designs by Coypel, Lafosse, Watteau, Jouvenet.... He was father and master of Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young” (1715 – 1790) [Benezit III, 82-83]
Charles-Nicolas Cochin fils (Paris, 1715 – Paris, 1790) [AKA: Charles-Nicolas Cochin "the young"]: Painter, engraver and art theorist. His first masters were his own parents, Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the old” and Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, both burin engravers; important family of artists from which Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young” was the most remarkable. He also was instructed in drawing by Jean Restout II, receiving Chardin and Boucher’s influence. When he was only fifteen years old, he had already engraved notable plates. His principal occupation was as a designer (allegorical frontispieces, vignettes, fleurons, initials...) and as an illustrator (La Fontaine’s Tales, Virgilio’s Eneida, The Bible, Encyclopedia...) and he early succeed with plates as Les Pompes funèbres, Les cérémonies de la cour and Les Ports de France. On the occasion of the fireworks for the wedding between Louise-Elisabeth of France and the Spanish Infant, Cochin designed and engraved ten plates that were very successful too, as those four plates for the marriage of the Dolphin of France: Bal paré, Bal masqué, Cérémonie religieuse and Spectacle de gala; they have been considered as art masterpieces. More than 1.600 engravings were designed and/or engraved by him. In 1741, Cochin was named Academy attaché. In 1749, he traveled to Italy with M. de Vandiere (Madame de Pompadour’s brother) to improve his technique; he remained in this country until 1751. In this year, he was named a member of the Academy. In 1752, after Coypel’s death, Cochin succeed him as Garde du Cabinet des Estampes du Roi. In 1757, King Louis XV named Cochin member of the Ordre du Saint-Michel, designer and engraver of Menus-plaisirs and royal censor. As an art theorist, he wrote some important texts as Observations sur les antiquités d’Herculanum (1751), Réflexions sur la critique des ouvrages exposés au Louvre (1757), Voyage pittoresque d’Italie (1756) and Recueil de quelques pièces concernant les arts, avec une dissertation sur l’effet de la lumière et des ombres, relativement à la peinture (1757) [Benezit III, 83-84]
Charles Copeland (1858 - 1945): American book illustrator active from about 1887 until about 1940. He was a member of the Boston Watercolor Society and the Boston Art Club. His illustrations were used in a variety of books.
Richard Corbould (London, 1757 – Highate, 1831): Oil painter, water-colorist, miniaturist, designer and illustrator. Corbould was one of the most successful miniaturists, painting not only portraits, but also landscapes and history scenes. He painted even on porcelain and enamel. First of a dynasty of painters and illustrators from the 18th to the 20th century, Corbould’s work is typically vignette-style and seems not just pre-Victorian but pre-19th century in style. Richard Corbould was a versatile artist producing landscapes, genre and historical subjects, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1777 to 1811, as well as book illustrations. Corbould had a long association with the book publisher C. Cooke, illustrating Daniel Defoe's The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1790) among many others [Benezit III, 163]
Louis François Couché fils (Paris, 1782-Paris, 1849): Designer and engraver. Disciple of Louis Lafitte (1770-1828) for drawing and his father Jacques Laying (1750-?) for etching. He essentially illustrated the Napoleonic legend. We owe him a series of portraits of Napoleon and his brothers, scenes of battles of the First Empire (after himself but also after Swebach and Duplessis-Bertaux), illustrations for The Story of Napoleon by Jacques of Norvins (1827) or allegorical scenes (Recovery by Napoleon I of the right for Jewish citizens to freely practice their religion). It is also the author of views of Paris monuments and Egypt, scenes of homage to Voltaire and portraits.
F. Courtin (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator. Courtin designed a complete set of sixteen illustrations for Don Quixote edition of Paris: Hiard, 1832 (and 1836).
Charles-Antoine Coypel (Paris, 1694 - Paris, 1752) [AKA: Charles-Antoine Coypel (copied after)]: History and genre painter and engraver. Antoine Coypel's son. Due to his early interest in painting, he was 20 years old when he was accepted into the French Académie. He made his debut as history painter, but he succeeded as genre painter. Les jeux d'enfants, his canvases about Don Quixote and his illustrations for Molière's works are noteworthy. In 1772, after his father’s death, he inherited his posts as royal directeur des tableaux and Duke of Orleans' first painter. In 1747, he was appointed as first painter of the King and director of the Academy. He was also a great writer of several successful comedies and tragedies. As an engraver, he was charming, amusing and satirical. His works are in Besançon, Chartres, Fontainebleau, Nantes, Paris and Toulouse [Benezit III, 247-248]
Walter Crane (Liverpool, 1845 – London, 1915): Painter, illustrator and designer. Well-known for his illustrations of children's books in a deliberately archaic style. Crane studied miniature painting and wood engraving in his youth and was apprenticed to William J. Linton; he was also a disciple of his father, Thomas Crane. His paintings and book illustrations were influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and by Japanese prints. With the designer William Morris he was a leader in the Arts and Crafts movement, which sought to reform the decorative arts. Crane founded the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society in 1888, becoming their first President. The object of the body was to assist in the revival of the art and handicrafts currently occurring, and to draw attention to the craftsmen involved. Crane designed wallpapers, most notably "Sleeping Beauty" and "Swan Rush and Iris". These beautiful papers were produced by Jeffrey & Co. By 1870 he was established as a ceramic designer for Wedgwood too. Walter Crane also illustrated books for William Morris and other publishers including The Frog Prince (1874), Household Stories from Grimm (1882), and his masterpiece, Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene (1894-1896). He illustrated 50 complete books between 1865 and 1886 and continued with at least two books a year until the end of the century. By 1869 Crane had evolved his personal and distinctive manner of illustration and was not only signing his work but his books were issued by the publishers in a separate category under the heading "Walter Crane Toy Books". His books are rather collectable but because of the huge print runs are still relatively easily available. His designs are also found in many periodicals of the day, and crop up in exhibitions of arts and crafts, for example in the William Morris Gallery. Crane wrote important books on decoration and design, including The Decorative Illustration of Books (1896) and Line and Form (1900). In the Universal Exposition of 1889 he was awarded with a second class medal, and with a third class one in 1900 [Benezit III, 260]
George Cruikshank (Bloomsbury, 1792 – London, 1878): Designer, painter, book illustrator, caricaturist and engraver. His father, the painter Isaac Cruikshank, was a famous caricaturist in London too. He is considered to be one of the best illustrators that Britain has produced. He worked for several journals and illustrated magazines. Between 1835 and 1853, he published several calendars, until he managed to publish his own George Cruikshank's Magazine. He is also one of Charles Dickens’ main illustrators. Cruikshank was one of the first artists to depict lifelike characters. He is a forerunner of illustrating books for young English people; he illustrated Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1831), Uncle Tom’s cabin (1852), Dickens’ Oliver Twist and Brothers Grimm’s German popular stories. Cruikshank elaborated two different sets of illustrations for Don Quixote: one in 1824 and another one in 1833. His brother, Robert-Isaac Cruikshank (London, 1789 – ¿?, 1856) was a watercolorist and a caricaturist too and worked with him [Benezit III, 290]
Elizabeth Curtis (USA, 20th century): American painter and illustrator. Elizabeth Curtis worked with Florence Choate illustrating children’s books mainly. Some of their best known works are the illustrations for Mary Graham Bonner’s Daddy’s bedtime fairy stories (1916), for Wonder book of Mother Goose (c. 1919) and for Edwards Clayton’s A treasury of Heroes and Heroines (1920).
Salvador Dalí (Figueras, 1904 – Figueras, 1989): Painter. Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech is one of the most important painters of the 20th century, best known for the striking, bizarre and beautiful images in his surrealist work. After a period of initial drawing formation, Dalí moved into the Residencia de estudiantes in Madrid in 1922 and there studied at the San Fernando School of Fine Arts. In his earliest works, Dalí experimented with Cubism, but he probably did not completely understand the movement, since his only information on Cubist art came from a few magazine articles and a catalogue given to him by Pichot, and there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time. Dalí also experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. At the San Fernando School of Fine Arts, he became close friends with the poet Federico García Lorca and filmmaker Luis Buñuel. Dalí was expelled from the academy in 1926 shortly before his final exams when he stated that no one on the faculty was competent enough to examine him. In 1926 he made his first visit to Paris where he met with Pablo Picasso, whom young Dalí revered; Picasso had already heard favorable things about Dalí from Joan Miró. Dalí did a number of works heavily influenced by Picasso and Miró over the next few years as he moved toward developing his own style. In 1929 Dalí collaborated with the surrealistic film director Luis Buñuel on the short film Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog). Also that year he met his muse, inspiration and future wife Gala, had important professional exhibitions and officially joined the surrealist group in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris (although his work had already been heavily influenced by surrealism for two years). The surrealists hailed what Dalí called the Paranoiac-critical method of accessing the subconscious for greater artistic creativity. As World War II started in Europe, Dalí and Gala moved to the United States in 1940, where they lived for eight years. In 1942, he published his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. Starting in 1949, Dalí spent his remaining years back in his beloved Catalonia. The fact that he chose to live in Spain while it was ruled by Franco drew criticism from progressives and many other artists. Late in his career, Dalí did not confine himself to painting but experimented with many unusual or novel media and processes: he made bulletist works and was among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner. Several of his works incorporate optical illusions. In his later years, young artists like Andy Warhol proclaimed Dalí an important influence on pop art. Dalí’s post-World War II period bore the hallmarks of technical virtuosity and an interest in optical illusions, science and religion. Increasingly Catholic, and inspired by the shock of Hiroshima, he labeled this period "Nuclear Mysticism". In 1960, Dalí began to work on the Dalí Theatre and Museum in his home town of Figueres; it was his largest single project and the main focus of his energy through 1974. In 1982, King Juan Carlos of Spain bestowed on Dalí the title Marquis of Pubol, for which Dalí later paid him back by giving him a drawing (Head of Europa, which would turn out to be Dalí's final drawing) after the king visited him on his deathbed [Benezit III, 329-331; http://en.wikipedia.org; Sabater, Enrique et al. Dalí y el Quijote. Valencia: 2005]
Honoré Daumier (Marseille, 1808-Valmondois, 1879): French printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor, whose many works offer commentary on social and political life in France in the 19th century. During the reign of Louis Philippe, Charles Philipon launched the comic journal, La Caricature, Daumier joined its staff, which included such powerful artists as Devéria, Raffet and Grandville, and started upon his pictorial campaign of satire, targeting the foibles of the bourgeoisie, the corruption of the law and the incompetence of a blundering government. His caricature of the king as Gargantua led to Daumier's imprisonment for six months at Ste Pelagie in 1832. Soon after, the publication of La Caricature was discontinued, but Philipon provided a new field for Daumier's activity when he founded the Le Charivari. Daumier produced his social caricatures for Le Charivari, in which he held bourgeois society up to ridicule in the figure of Robert Macaire, hero of a popular melodrama. In another series, L'histoire ancienne, he took aim at the constraining pseudo-classicism of the art of the period. In 1848 Daumier embarked again on his political campaign, still in the service of Le Charivari, which he left in 1863 and rejoined in 1864. Around the mid 1840's Daumier started publishing his famous caricatures depicting members of the legal profession, known as 'Les Gens de Justice', a scathing satire about judges, defendants, attorneys and corrupt, greedy lawyers in general. A number of extremely rare albums appeared on white paper, covering 39 different legal themes, of which 37 had previously been published in the Charivari. It is said that Daumier's own experience as an employee in a bailiff's office during his youth may have influenced his rather negative attitude towards the legal profession.
Honoré-Victorin Daumier (Marseille, 1808 - Valmondois, 1879): Honoré Daumier was a famous caricaturist and lithographer, who was also active as a painter and sculptor. From 1830 he made his living drawing cartoons for satirical journals, lampooning the government, the professions and the French bourgeoisie. In 1832 he was imprisoned for making a caricature of King Louis-Philippe. Daumier was born in Marseilles, and followed his father to Paris in 1816. In about 1822 he became a pupil of Alexandre Lenoir, and studied the Old Master paintings in the Louvre in the later 1820s. During the course of his career Daumier remained in contact with the main painters of the time, including Delacroix, Millet and Corot. Perhaps due to his reputation as a cartoonist, he did not gain public recognition in his lifetime, though he is now considered a great draughtsman and graphic artist. In 1872 he began to go blind and lived in virtual retirement at Valmondois. While his prints deal with contemporary issues and fashions, Daumier's paintings tend to depict more timeless subjects, often drawn from literary sources. Daumier painted several works based on Cervantes's Don Quixote.
Jules David (Paris, 1808 - Paris, 1892): David was an accomplished watercolorist who made his Salon debut in 1834. He was a principal contributor to the publication Le Moniteur de la Mode. He helped to introduce naturalistic situations to fashion illustration instead of stiffly posed and isolated figures and he drew all the 2.600 fashion plates for this periodical from 1843 to his death in 1892 [Benezit III, 388]
Jérôme David (Paris, c. 1605/08 - c. 1670): French engraver. He was brother of Charles David (1600 – c. 1636), whose style he adopted. Often signs with the initials H.D.F. (Hyeronimus David Fecit). He primarily engraved portraits, but also biblical scenes and saints. [Hyeronimus David]
Guillaume-François-Laurent Debrie (18th century): Burin engraver, draughtsman, and book illustrator. Although Debrie's nationality is uncertain -probably Duth-, he worked in the Netherlands before settling in Paris and Lisbon, being active between 1733 and 1754.
Louis-Pierre-René Demoraine (Paris, 1816 - ?) [AKA: Louis-Pierre-René De Moraine]: Painter and lithographer [Benezit III, 489]
Ulisse Denis (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator. Working in Paris around 1826.
François Jacques Dequevauviller (Paris, c. 1783 - ?, c. 1848): Portrait and book illustration engraver. He was son and disciple of the engraver François Nicolas Barthelemy Dequevauviller (Abbeville, 1745 – Paris, c. 1807, whose engravings were very estimated. François Jacques Dequevauviller was well-known because of the light effects of his prints [Benezit III, 500]
Thomas Derrick (Bristol, 1885 - 1954): English artist, illustrator and cartoonist. Derrick was educated at Sidcot School. He trained as an artist at the Royal College of Art, later spending five years there as an instructor on the decorative arts. He married Margaret Clausen, the daughter of the professor of painting, George Clausen. His oil painting of the Judgement of Paris, painted in 1914 as a design for a mural, was given to the Brooklyn Museum of Art by Adolph Lewisohn in 1923, and exhibited there in 1925. In 1924 Derrick co-designed three posters for the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, and was the sole artist of a fourth in 1927. From 1931 he was active as a cartoonist, contributing to Punch, among other publications. He moved in broadly "traditionalist" artistic and intellectual circles, numbering among his friends Hilaire Belloc, G. K. Chesterton, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Ernest William Tristram, and Vincent McNabb, the latter the priest who received him into the Roman Catholic Church. His work also appeared in G. K.'s Weekly. Derrick lived for some years at Cold Ash, Berkshire, and his sons, Michael and Christopher, attended the nearby Douai School. Derrick, who was a friend of the headmaster, Dom Ignatius Rice, designed the bookplates for the monastery library and for the school's Bede Library (opened 1937), contributed sketches to the Douai Magazine, and painted portraits of some of the abbots and headmasters
Achille Jacques Jean Devéria (Paris, 1800 – Paris, 1857): Painter, designer, engraver and lithographer. He was a disciple of M. Laffitte and Girodet. In 1848, he was appointed as associate conservator of the “Cabinet des Estampes” and, in 1855, titular conservator. He is the author of a great number of lithographies published between 1828 and 1835; talented lithographer. As an engraver, he copied by etching the designs of his brother and history painter, Eugene Devéria (Paris, 1808 – Pau, 1865). In 1822, he exposed at the Salon. Since 1830, he is a successful book illustrator. His series of portraits of French Romanticism notable men (Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Dumas, Liszt...) is quite remarkable [Benezit III, 547 – 548]
Claude-Marie-François Dien (Paris, 1787 – Paris, 1865): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Reboul and Audoin. In 1809, he won the first prize in engraving, in 1838 and 1848 a first class medal and, in 1853, he was decorated with the “Légion d’honneur”. Between 1822 and 1861 he exposed engravings and watercolors at the Salon; the most of his engravings are portraits, genre and religious scenes for books (Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Reboul and Audoin. In 1809, he won the first prize in engraving, in 1838 and 1848 a first class medal and, in 1853, he was decorated with the “Légion d’honneur”. Between 1822 and 1861 he exposed engravings and watercolors at the Salon; the most of his engravings are portraits, genre and religious scenes for books [Benezit III, 572]
Manuel Domínguez Sánchez (Madrid, 1840 - Cuenca, 1906): Painter and illustrator. Student of the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in Madrid, then continued his studies in Rome. From there he sent works to the National Exhibition of Fine Arts, where he was awarded in 1871 by the great historical painting The Death of Seneca, his best-known painting. Painter of historical paintings, he also painted decorative cycles, among which the one carried out in the Basílica of San Francisco el Grande in Madrid, along with Alejandro Ferrant, must be highlighted.
Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (Strasbourg, 1832 – Paris, 1883): Designer, engraver, painter and sculptor. Doré designed his first lithographs at thirteen and published his first work, Le Travaux d’Hercules, at fourteen. He became a book illustrator in Paris, and his commissions included works by Rabelais, Balzac, and Dante. In 1853 he was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron. This commission was followed by other work for British publishers, including a new illustrated English Bible. He also illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven. Doré's English Bible (1865) was a great success, and in 1867 he had a major exhibition of his work in London. This led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in New Bond Street. In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. The book, London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 engravings, was published in 1872. It was a financial success and Doré received commissions from other British publishers. His later work included Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton's Paradise Lost, Tennyson's The Idylls of the King, The Works of Thomas Hood, and The Divine Comedy. His work also appeared in the Illustrated London News. Doré continued to illustrate books until his death; around 50 books were illustrated by him. The illustrations for Don Quixote were prepared during a journey through Spain accompanied by Baron Charles Davillier in 1861 – 1862. Doré has been considered the most remarkable Romanticism illustrator [Benezit III, 640 – 642]
Albert Dubout (Marseille, 1905 - Mézy-sur-Seine, 1976): French cartoonist, illustrator, painter, and sculptor. After attending school at Nîmes (where he met Jean Paulhan) he studied at the fine arts school in Montpellier where he met his first wife, Renée Altier, and where his first drawings were published in the student journal L'écho des étudiants in 1923. After moving to Paris, Éditions Kra literary director Philippe Soupault hired him to illustrate his first book, Les Embarras de Paris by Boileau. Dubout continued on to illustrate numerous editions of books by Boileau, Beaumarchais, Mérimée, Rabelais, Villon, Cervantes, Balzac, Racine, Voltaire, Rostand, Poe, and Courteline. He collaborated on numerous magazines and journals such as Le Rire, Marianne, Eclats de Rire, L'os à Moëlle, Paris-Soir, and Ici-Paris. He also created movie and theatre posters as well as theatrical sets. He worked in advertising, painted oil canvases (over 70 in total) and illustrated many book covers and record sleeves. Albert Dubout also illustrated Gargantua and Pantagruel, oeuvres of the famous French satirist Rabelais. One of his favorite and perhaps unwilling models were an obese tobacconist and the small and scrawny tax collector who lived in the forties and fifties in Agde, Herault, France. [http://www.dubout.fr/]
Mdme. Duflos (18th century): Engraver and acquafortist. She worked with her husband, Pierre Duflos. She etched some plates for “Recueil d’estampes représentant les grades, les rangs et les dignités suivant les costumes de toutes les nations” (1780), for “Abrégé de l’histoire universelle en figures” (1785) and for an edition with Claude Joseph Dorat’s works [Benezit III, 717]
Charles Dusaulchoy (Toul, 1781 – Montmorency, 1852): History painter and illustrator. He was a disciple of David and, between 1808 and 1851, he exposed at the Salon (maritime views and military scenes) [Benezit IV, 66]
Joaquín Espalter y Rull (Sitges, 1809 – Madrid, 1880): History painter. Espalter received his art instruction in Paris, where he was disciple of Baron Gros. In 1843, he became a member of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts and, then, a professor of the High School of Painting and Sculpture. He was one of the funding members of the Nazarenos group in Barcelona. In 1855 and 1867, he exhibited at the Universal Exhibition of Paris. He was awarded the Cross of Isabel La Católica [Benezit IV, 198]
Estevanillo (Barcelona, 19th century) [AKA: Estebanillo]: Illustrator and engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.
Gaëtan Evrard (Namur, 1959 -): Belgian comic author and illustrator. He studied drawing in Brussels at the St. Luc School. How I Cured Don Quixote by Doctor Sancho Panza (Paris-Gembloux: Duculot, 1986) was his first children's book.
Adrien Feart (Sedan, 1813 - ?): Sculptor, designer and medalist. Feart, H. Dantan’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1845 and 1879. He engraved Rafael’s Marriage of the Virgin [Benezit IV, 299]
Gabriel Fernández Ledesma (Agusascalientes, Mexico, 1900 - Mexico City, 1983): Mexican painter, printmaker, sculptor, graphic artist, writer and teacher. He began his career working with artist Roberto Montenegro, then moved into publishing and education. His work was recognized with two Guggenheim Fellowships, the José Guadalupe Posada medal and membership in the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana.
Luis Ferrant y Llausas (Barcelona, 1806 – Madrid, 1868) [AKA: Luis Ferrant y Llamas]: History painter and portraitist. He was disciple of J. de Ribera. The Infant Gabriel awarded him with a pension to study at Rome. In 1848, Ferrant returned to Spain and he became a court painter and a professor at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts; however, his first dedication was to work for Infant Gabriel’s gallery. Ferrant was a highly talented painter; some of his History paintings and portraits are quite remarkable [Benezit IV, 331]
Gregorio Ferro (Santa María de Lamas, Coruña, 1742 – Madrid, 1812): History painter. He was a disciple of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) and, in 1804, he became its general director. Ferro worked for several churches and convents in Madrid. His style is a bad imitation of Meng’s [Benezit IV, 343]
Miguel Fluyxench y Trell (Tarragona, 19th century – ?): History painter and portraitist. He received his first art instruction at the School of Fine Arts of Barcelona; then, he completed his studies at Rome and returned to Spain, where he was appointed professor of the School of Painting in Barcelona. Fluyxench exhibited at Madrid, Barcelona and London [Benezit IV, 413]
Jacob Folkema (Dokkum, 1692 – Amsterdam, 1767): Designer and engraver. Folkema, disciple of his father, Jacobsz Folkema, who was a goldsmith, and Bernard Picart, was a successful black manner engraver [Benezit IV, 417]
Eugène-Hippolyte Forest (Strasbourg, 1808 - 1891): Landscape and genre painter, engraver and lithographer. Forest was a disciple of Camille Roqueplan and he also collaborated with Jean-Ignace-Isidore Gérard Grandville (1803 – 1848). Forest exhibited at the Salon between 1846 and 1866 and, as an engraver, he worked for several publications, such as La Caricature or Charivari, and caricature albums, many of them following Henri Monnier’s style. He also designed lithographs and vignettes for illustrated books [Benezit IV, 436]
Joseph-Marie Foussereau (Paris, 1809 - ?): Painter, watercolorist and illustrator. Foussereau entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1827 and worked under Guillon Lethière. His first public appearance was at the Salon of 1831 with Murat sauvé par un dragon, after that he specialized on studies of horses and uniforms. As an illustrator, he did vignettes for several works: Voyages pittoresques de Taylor et de Nodier; Oeuvres complètes of Lamartine and others. Besides that he also did lithographs for L'Artillerie française in 1829 and for Uniformes de la garde nationale, de l'armée et de la marine française from 1830 to 1832, and single plates on the Revolution of 1830 [Benezit IV, 467]
Jean-Honoré Fragonard (Grasse, 1732 - Paris, 1806): French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism. One of the most prolific artists active in the last decades of the Ancien Régime, Fragonard produced more than 550 paintings (not counting drawings and etchings), of which only five are dated. Among his most popular works are genre paintings conveying an atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism. [http://arts-graphiques.louvre.fr/detail/oeuvres/2/220562-LArioste-dedie-son-poeme-a-Hippolyte-dEste ]
Gustave Fraipont (Brussels, 1849 - Paris, 1923): Painter, watercolorist and engraver. Fraipont, a disciple of Hendrick and H. de Hem, settled in Paris and exhibited at the Salon, where he was awarded an Honor Mention in 1882. In 1896 he was also awarded Chevalier de la LÃ©gion d'honneur. His son, Georges Fraipont (Paris, 1873 - 1912), was a great illustrator too; he was educated under Garome and Luc-Olivier Merson [Benezit IV, 475]
Juan Francés y Mexia (Madrid, 1873 - 1954): Genre painter, portraitist and illustrator. Juan Francés, son of the well-known painter Plácido Francés y Pascual (1834 – 1902), began his art studies at the Escuela Central de Artes y Oficios in Madrid, where his father was a professor, and at the Escuela Especial de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado, where he was awarded in different occasions. In 1893, Juan Francés traveled to Paris with his uncle Emilio Sala; there, he came into contact with some of the Impressionist French painters, whose style would influence his painting. As an illustrator, Juan Francés worked for some of the most important journals and periodicals of the time, as Blanco y Negro, La Ilustración Española y Americana and La Esfera. Widely awarded both in Spain and abroad, Francés received, among others, the Cruz de Alfonso X El Sabio (1943) and the Légion d’Honneur [Benezit IV, 478]
Galbán (Madrid, 19th century): Illustrator working in Madrid c. 1862.
Enrico Gamba (Turin, 1831 - Turin, 1883): History, genre and landscape painter, portraitist, watercolorist and designer. Enrico Gamba studied at Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin as well as Stadelsche Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt am Main, where he settled in 1850 to study under Steinle. He moved about Europe working as a painter and as an engraver, exhibiting in Vienna and Frankfurt between 1873 and 1881. [Benezit: 1999, V, 839]
José García Ramos (Sevilla, 1852 – Sevilla, 1912): Genre painter and portraitist. García Ramos, disciple of José Jiménez Aranda, began his art studies in Sevilla, then continued in Rome (1872), Paris and Rome again, remaining in Italy until 1881. Back in Spain in 1882, he was appointed director of the School of Fine Arts in Sevilla. A key event in the development of García Ramos’ style was Mariano Fortuny and Martín Rico's stay in Seville and Granada in 1871. Their “preciosista” paintings, also imbued with the new interest in luminism, would be important for this artist as well as for others 19th-century Andalusian painters such as Jiménez Aranda, José Moreno Carbonero, Salvador Sánchez Barbudo and Antonio Reyna. García Ramos can be considered as a late genre painter; this type of genre or “costumbrista” painting lasted in Andalusia until the late 19th century, reflecting ever more closely the tastes of a local petit bourgeois clientele. Their works draw on the earlier interest in popular types but in combination with a more detailed observation of the figures and urban setting, the result of French Realist influence. García Ramos was awarded a bronze medal at the Universal Exposition of Paris in 1900 [Benezit IV, 613]
Manuel García y García Hispaleto (Sevilla, 1836 – 1898): Spanish History and genre painter. Hispaleto painted three different scenes from Don Quixote: Entierro del pastor Grisóstomo, awarded with a third medal in the National Exposition of Fine Arts in 1862, Casamiento de Basilio y Quiteria (1881; second medal) and Discurso que hizo don Quijote de las armas y las letras (1884; not awarded).
Julio Castro de la GÃ¡ndara (Ceuta, Spain - ?): Illustrator, muralist and sculptor. Julio Castro de la GÃ¡ndara studied at the San Fernando High School of Fine Arts in Madrid and at the "Hochschule fÃ¼r bildende KÃ¼nste" in Berlin, where he got in contact with the Vanguard Plastic Movements. As an illustrator, he collaborated with Blanco y Negro and the publisher Aguilar.
Renè Giffey (Paris, 1884 - 1965): [www.ricochet-jeunes.org; http://lambiek.net/artists/g/giffey_rene.htm]
William B. Gihon (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver working in Philadelphia between 1845 and 1860. He was for a number of years associated with Reuben S. Gilbert. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 258.]
Gerónimo Antonio Gil (Zamora, 1732 – Mexico, 1798): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Tomás Prieto [Benezit IV, 719]
José Pedro Gil Moreno de Mora (Paris, 1892 - 1945): Illustrator and engraver. José Pedro Gil was trained in Paris as an engineer and as an engraver under Maurice Achener. He was a member of the "Agrupación de Amigos del Libro de Arte" (ALA ), the society set up in Paris by Eugenio d'Ors in collaboration with Adelia Acevedo. As a writer and illustrator, he is best known in France than in Spain. In Paris he illustrated two bibliophile editions of Spanish theme: Miguel de Cervantes' Constance: l'Illustre Servante (1931), and Georges Grappe's Un soir à Cordue (1932), his best-known work. Both books are illustrated with drypoints, in the delicate style that characterizes this artist. Founding member of the "Asociación de Bibliófilos de Barcelona" (ABB), his intervention was decisive in the constitution of this society.
John Gilbert (Blackheath, 1817 – 1897) [AKA: Sir John Gilbert]: English painter. Gilbert was a disciple of George Lance. When he was 19 years old, he engraved “The Arrest of Lord Hastings”, which was exposed in the Society of English Artists in 1836. He also exposed at the Royal Academy and at the British Institution between 1838 and 1851 and between 1867 and 1897. In 1871, he was named sir by the Queen Victoria. He is supposed to be the author of 450 paintings and 40.000 illustrations for literary works, as Don Quixote or Gil Blas. He became the president of the Royal Water-Colour Society. The Museum of Liverpool owns his Don Quixote at the inn and Don Quixote and Sancho in the castle of the Duke; and the Victoria & Albert Museum of London owns his Don Quixote and Sancho and Don Quixote discussing with the priest and the barber [Benezit IV, 721 – 722]
Reuben S. Gilbert (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver and book illustrator in Philadelphia c. 1830-50. He executed a number of book illustrations, independently and as a member of the firm Gilbert & Gihon. He also exhibited engravings at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1830-31 and 1834. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 259.]
Charles Gillot (Paris, 1853 – 1903): Engraver and collector. Charles Gillot, son of the inventor of the Paniconography, Firmin Gillot (1820-1872), invented in 1872 the process to faith-fully reproduce drawings and sketches: the gillotage. Some years later, the gillotage was improved to allow shading and tones: photoengraving. He opened the first commercial photo-engraving firm in Paris in 1876 and this process quickly predominated in the illustrated newspapers and books of the period, such as for example: Le Charivari, Le Rire, L'assiette au beurre, Gil Blas Illustre, and many others. Charles Gillot was also known as one of the most important collectors of Japanese and Medieval art [Benezit: 1976, V, 3]
Adolphe Giraldon (Marseille, 1855 – 1935): Painter and illustrator. Some of the works illustrated by Giraldon are Alfred de Musset’s Rolla (1912), Virgilio’s Eclogues and Albert Samain’s Au Jardin de l’Infante. Giraldon became a professor in Glasgow [Benezit: 1976, V, 33]
Daniel Girard (Paris, 1890-?) [AKA: Daniel-Girard]: French painter, engraver and illustrator.
Karl Girardet (Locle, 1813 - Paris, 1871): Swiss painter. Girardet was the most distinguished of a family of artists. He arrived in Paris with his father, Charles-Samuel, at the age of nine; in Paris, he worked as an apprentice in Léon Cogniet’s atelier. Beginning in 1836, he exhibited at the Salon (awarded in 1842). As the favorite painter of Louis-Philippe, he traveled to Egypt where he made a large number of sketches which were later published in Magasin Pittoresque and Tour du Monde. In 1837, he settled in Brienz with his brother, Edouard, and Edouard's sons Leopold Henri, Robert and Max. They began inviting painter friends such as Maximilien de Meuron, Alexandre Calame and Benjamin Vautier, turning Brienz into a meeting place for artists and their admirers. They are sometimes referred to as the "School of Brienz" [Benezit V, 37]
J. Gironella (Barcelona, 19th century): Designer working in Barcelona around 1858.
Antonio Gisbert (Alcoy, 1834 – Paris, 1902): History and genre painter. Gisbert studied at San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid, completing his art studies in Rome, where he remained for five years. Thanks to the great success of his first History painting, Comuneros de Castilla (1860), Gisbert continued working this genre, rivalling Casado del Alisal. One of his best-known works is Fusilamientos de Torrijos y sus compañeros (1888). He exhibited Don Quijote en casa de los Duques at the National Exposition of Fine Arts of 1871.
Xavier Gómez Rubio (20th century): Illustrator.
Pedro González Bolívar (19th-20th century): Spanish painter.
Zofia Góralczyk (1933 - Warsaw, 2009): Zofia Góralczyk-Markuszewska was an artist, set and costume designer, and book illustrator. Since 1954, she worked with the Student Satirical Theatre STS in Warsaw designing for the theater stage sets and costumes. She also performed on the stage of this theater. In 1954 she married the theater director and writer George Markuszewski (1930-2007). After the liquidation of the theater, she began to design sets for films. She also illustrated books such as Jeremiego Przybory's Divertimento.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Fuendetodos,1746-Bordeaux, 1828): Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes is regarded as the most important Spanish artist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Over the course of his long career, Goya moved from jolly and lighthearted to deeply pessimistic and searching in his paintings, drawings, etchings, and frescoes. Born in Fuendetodos, he later moved with his parents to Saragossa and, at age fourteen, began studying with the painter José Luzán Martínez (1710–1785). In 1746, the year of Goya's birth, the Spanish crown was under the rule of Ferdinand VI. Subsequently, the Bourbon king Charles III (r. 1759–88) ruled the country as an enlightened monarch sympathetic to change, employing ministers who supported radical economic, industrial, and agricultural reform. Goya came to artistic maturity during this age of enlightenment. For the bold technique of his paintings, the haunting satire of his etchings, and his belief that the artist's vision is more important than tradition, Goya is often called "the first of the moderns." His uncompromising portrayal of his times marks the beginning of 19th-century realism.
Jean-Ignace-Isidore Gérard Grandville (Nancy, 1803 – Vanues, 1847): Designer, water-colorist, caricaturist and lithographer. Grandville received his first instruction in drawing from his father, a miniature painter, and at the age of twenty-one came to Paris, where he soon afterwards published a collection of lithographs entitled Les Tribulations de la petite proprieté. He followed this by Les Plaisirs de toutdge and La Sibylle des salons; but the work which first established his fame was Les Métamorphoses du jour (1828-29), a series of seventy scenes in which individuals with the bodies of men and faces of animals are made to play a human comedy. The success of this work led to his being engaged as artistic contributor to various periodicals, such as Le Silhouette, L'Artiste, La Caricature, Le Charivari. After the reinstitution of prior censorship of caricature in 1835, Grandville turned almost exclusively to book illustration, supplying illustrations for various standard works, such as the songs of Béranger, La Fontaine’s Fables, Don Quixote, Gulliver's Travels, Robinson Crusoe. He also continued to issue various lithographic collections, among which may be mentioned La Vie privée et publique des animaux, Les Cent Proverbes, L'Autre Monde and Les Fleurs animées. Though the designs of Grandville are occasionally unnatural and absurd, they usually display keen analysis of character and marvelous inventive ingenuity, and his humor is always tempered and refined by delicacy of sentiment and a vein of sober thoughtfulness. Grandville, considered precursor of Surrealism, died in a mental hospital [Benezit V, 164]
Charles Grignion II (London, 1754 - Leghorn, 1804): Engraver, History painter and portraitist. Charles Grignion II, son of Charles Grignion the elder, was disciple of Cipriani and of the Royal academy too. In 1776, he was awarded with a golden medal and, between 1770 and 1784, he exhibited at the Royal Academy [Benezit V, 209]
Jan van der Gucht (London, 1697 - London, 1776) [AKA: John van der Gucht]: Engraver and caricaturist; Gerard van der Gucht's brother. His father and master, Michael van der Gucht, engraved for London: Chiswell, 1700. He used etching finished by burin and dry point. He worked at the Painter's drawing Academy and was friend and colleague of William Hogarth. He made the plates for "Osteographia or the anatomy of the bones" by W. Cheselden (1733, excellent caricatures and some engravings from Thornill´s designs about saint Paul´s life [Benezit, 1976, V, 261]
Albert Guillaume (1873 - 1942): Illustrator, painter and caricaturist. Albert Guillaume was one of the best-known Frech caricaturists of the "Belle Epoque". He made posters for theatre and advertising. His satirical drawings and comic stories were published in the Parisian magazines of the time, such as Gil Blas, Le Rire, L'Assiette au Beurre and Le Figaro. Much of his work was also printed in books by publishers like Jules Tallandier, Ernest Maindron and Henri Simonis. He also published three albums with military drawings, including Mes Campagnes (1896).
Guy (20th century): Illustrator working in Italy around 1969.
Guillaume le Barrois d'Orgeval, Guydo (1868-1931): Guillaume le Barrois d'Orgeval, who signed with Guydo, was a French writer, illustrator and caricaturist. He came from a family of ancient nobility, and had no artistic background or education. He debuted in 1890, illustrating 'La Pupille de Pollichinelle' by O. Le Roy. Since 1893, he contributed to many satirical magazines of the time, including Le Triboulet, Nos Vieux, La Caricature and Le Chat Noir. For the latter, he drew various black cats, that became mascottes for the magazine and the cabaret. He continued his career as an artist and caricaturist in pretigious magazines like Femina, Le Rire, L'Amour, L'Assiette au Beurre, Chronique Amusante, Le Frou Frou, Gil Blas and La Lanterne de Bruant. In 1908, he was one of the illustrators for the illustrated encyclopedia magazine Je Sais Tout. He began a collaboration with La Semaine de Suzette in 1905. Guydo additionally wrote and illustrated children's books. He was part of the Montmartre artist group in Paris. Guydo died in 1931, and his personal diaries and memoires were destroyed during a bombing in World War II. [http://www.lambiek.net/artists/g/guydo.htm]
Johan Meno Haas (Hamburg, 1752 – Berlin, 1833): Painter and engraver. He was son and disciple of the engraver Jonas Haas (1720 – 1775); Meno Haas also was instructed by Johann Georg Preisler (Copenhagen, 1757 - Copenhagen, 1831) at the Academy of Copenhagen and by Nicolas Launay in Paris. He traveled to this city with his brother Johan-Jakob-Georg Haas, an engraver too. In 1786, he was commissioned to copy the art works of the Gallery of Berlin and, in 1793, he was named a member of the Academy of Berlin. Meno Haas worked for several booksellers and he engraved plates with designs of contemporaneous German painters [Benezit V, 336]
Albert Hahn Jr. (Amsterdam, 1894 - Aldaar, 1953) [AKA: Albert Pieter Dijkman]: Albert Hahn Jr. was an important illustrator and cartoonist in Holland between World War I and II. His original surname was Dijkman and he was the stepson of Dutch cartoonist Albert Hahn Sr. The original family name was changed to Hahn Dijkman in 1922. He learned the profession not only from his stepfather, but also at the Quellinus art school in Amsterdam. He obtained degrees in decorative arts (1914) and linear arts (1916). He worked as an art teacher from 1914 to 1948, while also gaining notoriety as a political cartoonist. He signed his work with Hahn Jr. or A. Poussin. He became known for his cartoons for De Nieuwe Amsterdammer and for satirical socialist magazine De Notenkraker from 1915 onwards. He also made many illustrations for children's books, including Charles De Coster's Tijl Uilenspiegel (1927), Christuslegenden by Selma Lagerlöf (1929), Don Quichotte (1930) and De Historie van Doctor Johannes Faustus by René de Clercq (1931). When Hahn Sr. passed away in 1918, he became a staff artist with De Notenkraker. He drew many covers, political drawings and text comics, especially during the decade before the second World War, until 1936. He furthermore designed posters, calendars and brochures for the socialist party SDAP and the Dutch Association of Trade Unions NVV. [http://www.lambiek.net/artists/h/hahn_albert_jr.htm]
Fernand Van Hamme (Saint-Josse-ten-Nood, 1911 - Brussels, 1976) [AKA: Ferdinand Van Hamme]: Belgian painter and illustrator. He was awarded 1972 Oeuvre National des Beaux-Arts prize. [Benezit: 1999, VI, 715]
Paul Hardy (End of 19th century – beginning of 20th): English illustrator working in London by the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Among his works, the illustrations for Helena Brooks’ Lord Lynton’s Ward (c. 1892), W. Lorcan O’Byrne’s Children of Kings (1904), The Knight Of The Cave Or, The Quest Of The Pallium (1906) and The Falcon King; Or, The Story of the Anglo-Norman Invasion of Ireland (1907), Christmas Songs and Carols (1919), and Alexander Dumas’ The Black Tulip (1937).
Jacobus Harrewÿn (1662 - 1733) [AKA: Jacob Harrewyn; Jacobus Harrewijn]: Designer and engraver. Harrewÿn lived and worked in Amsterdam, where he got married, Antwerp, where he became a master, and Brussels, where his son François Harrewÿn was born. Jacobus engraved two views of Rubens’ house and some plates for Le Roy’s work Castella et Praetoria Nobilium Brabantiae. His son François (1700 – 1764) was a designer and an engraver too and also his disciple [Benezit V, 411]
Kenneth Hassrick (Ocean City, N.J., 1921 - 2004): Illustrator, sculptor, and painter. Kenneth Hassrick kept visual art as his focus since his childhood. As a young man he worked for a printer in Doylestown, Penn., making offset plates. He married Peggy Cooper in 1941 and served as a master sergeant in the Armys Signal Corps in Europe during World War II. During that time he lived in Paris and enrolled in L'Ecole de Beaux Arts to study under Fernand Leger. After the war, he married Barbara Doll Estabrook Fox in March 1953. Together they owned a print shop in Philadelphia, but they sold the business to take the first of many sailing voyages. In 1963 they moved to the Hollywood Hills and Hassrick opened a metal work studio in Glendale with partner J.B. Thompson. While in California, Hassrick became well-known for his body of abstract work that he sculpted from metal scraps or cast through lost wax. After raising Morgan horses in Oregon, they moved to Whidbey in 1977 and bought a 10-acre farm in Clinton. Hassrick converted a barn into a large studio, and his work then began to focus on the female form in sculpture and painting, abstract and realistic. Immediately, the Hassricks bonded with the Whidbey Island arts community. Doll served on the Island Arts Council, and once was president of the nonprofit organization. Ken helped judge scholarship contestants. Both would invite young artists into their studio to see how the veterans worked.
Francis Hayman (Exeter, 1708 – London, 1776): History, literature, portrait and landscape painter, illustrator and acquafortist. Hayman, Robert Brown’s disciple, began his artistic career as a scene painter in London's Drury Lane theaters, before establishing a studio in St Martin's Lane, and as an illustrator; he designed illustrations for works of Pope, Milton, Samuel Richardson, Shakespeare (31 for sir Thomas Hanmer’s edition of Shakespeare’s pays, 1744) and Cervantes. He achieved some note during the 1740s thanks to the decorative paintings executed for Vauxhall in collaboration with Gainsborough, his disciple. His style, next to French Rococo, is decorative. The National Portrait Gallery owns his self-portrait. Hayman was a founding member of the Royal Academy; he presented two paintings about don Quixote at the first exhibition of the Academy (1769). Other “Don Quixote” editions with Hayman´s designs: Glasgow: Robert & Andrew Foulis, 1771 (4 illustrations); London: F. Newberry, 1778 (1 frontis + 16 illustrations engraved by Royce); London: A. Law, 1793 (1 + 15); London: C. Cooke, 1799 (5 + 16 by Hayman, R. Corbould and T. Kirk and engraved by C. Warren and W. Hwakins); London, S. Rousseau, 1811 (1 + 12 engraved by C. Warren, M. N. Bate, F. Deeves and P. Audinet). [Benezit V, 442-443; A51, 65, 71, 88, 56, 433]
Charles Heath “the elder” (¿?, 1785 – London, 1848): Watercolorist and burin engraver. He was the son of the burin engraver James Heath (London, 1757 – London, 1834). Charles Heath engraved views and mythological scenes. Between 1801 and 1825, he exposed at the Royal Academy and at Suffolk Street. He became a member of the Society of British Artists. His son, Charles Heath “the young” was a portrait painter and en engraver too [Benezit V, 447]
William Heath Robinson (Islington, North London, 1872 - 1944): Illustrator and watercolorist. William Heath Robinson was the younger brother of Charles and Thomas Heath Robinson. Like Charles, he was equally at home with line and watercolor, but he brought a unique humor to his art mostly absent from that of his brothers. Heath Robinson, having studied art at the Islington School of Art and sporadically at the Painting Schools of the Royal Academy, truly wished to make a living as a landscape painter. At the age of 25, however, came the rude realization that making drawings for the burgeoning publications of the day was likely to earn him a living, whereas the sale of just one landscape that year (to a friend) was not. His brothers had already started their illustration careers, and it seemed it was time for young Will to join them. That year, 1897, he produced illustrations for The Giant Crab and Other Tales from Old India, Danish Fairy Tales and Legends of Hans Andersen, Don Quixote and The Pilgrim's Progress. These early efforts were in search of a style. It's interesting to note both the lingering influence of wood-engraving in his early work and his tendency towards more serious subjects; Cervantes (he'd tackle Quixote again in 1902 and yet again in 1953), John Bunyan, and Poe were not the typical fairy tale romantic stuff that brother Charles and many others were doing contemporaneously. So it came as some surprise that in 1902 he wrote and drew an appealing and fanciful children's book, The Adventures of Uncle Lubin and, even more surprising, that he would contract with the same publisher to next illustrate Rabelais. Published in 1904, Rabelais had over 250 b&w illustrations, with a flowing line that owed more to Art Nouveau than to any historic vestige of wood-engraving. Robinson was suddenly prestige rich and pound poor. The most accessible source of immediate income came not from another book publisher, but from the weekly magazines like The Tattler, The Bystander and The Sketch. He got to work and produced b&w humorous drawings for them, and displayed the detached serious silliness for which he became famous. He produced several sets of eight small paintings for a Told to the Little Folks series of books for T.C. and E.C. Jack (Chaucer, The Iliad, The Odyssey, The Child's Arabian Nights, The Monarchs of Merry England...). Robinson was capable of fancy, but fantasy itself seems to have been a stretch for him. Even his humor is rooted firmly in the real world and derives much of its success from taking fanciful situations and grounding them firmly in a world that still followed the laws of physics. This tendency makes the books he wrote all the more startling and successful. He applied his special touch to topics like Golfers (an easy and frequent target), the War, Flat Life (post war housing space was at a premium), Gardening, Motoring, Husbands, Flying, and many others. Collections appeared in book form over the next 30 years (The Best of Heath Robinson, Heath Robinson at War, Inventions...). His autobiography, My Line of Life, was published in 1938. When he died in 1944, he left behind an unfinished sequel to Uncle Lubin and illustrations in color for yet another version of Don Quixote. This was published in 1953 with the majority of the b&w illustrations in it taken from his 1902 edition. [Benezit: 1976, IX, 19; http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/whrobin.htm]
John Heaviside Clark (¿?, c. 1770 – Edinburgh, 1863): Landscape and seascape painter and book illustrator. He was called “Waterloo Clark” because of the sketches he made during the Waterloo battle. He elaborated illustrations for his own “Practical essay on the Art of Colouring and Painting Landscapes” (1807), Samuel Butler’s “Hudibras” (1819) and Gilpin’s “A Practical illustration on Gilpin’s day” (1824). Between 1801 and 1832, he exposed several landscapes at the Royal Academy. His sketches and watercolors were well reproduced by hand colored acquatints [Benezit III, 49]
Enyvvári Herbert (Hungary, 20th cenruy): Illustrator active in Budapest around 1930-1940s.
Joaquín Heredia (Mexico, c.1826-?): Illustrator and lithographer. Heredia began to work for Cumplido printing shop in 1839, when he illustrated La Guirnalda. In 1844 he illustrated Fossey's Viaje a México and in 1846 Prescott's Historia Antigua de México. He is also the author of several caricatures for El Gallo Pitagórico.
Hérmenlin (20th century): Illustrator working in Buenos Aires around the 30s and 40s. Among his works: Fábulas de Iriarte (1938), Don Quijote (1939), Periquito, buzo. Aventuras de Caco y Cuqui. El dragón rojo. Pepito, cazador de fieras (1940?), Leyendas de Becquer (1940?), ¿Quo vadis? (19--?).
Joseph Highmore (London, 1692 - Canterbury, 1780): Portraitist and History painter. In 1725, he illustrated a work about the Ordre du Bain. [Bénézit (1999): VII, 40]
Charles Hirlemann (20th century): Illustrator working in Paris for Garnier Freres editors around 1930.
William Hogarth (London, 1697 – London, 1764): Genre and History painter, etching and burin engraver, pictorial satirist and editorial cartoonist. Hogarth was one of the leading British artists of the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as an engraver and by 1720 established his own business printing billheads, book illustrations and funeral tickets. In his spare time he learnt to paint, firstly at St. Martin's Lane Academy and then under Sir James Thornhill, whose daughter he married in 1729. He made a name for himself with small family groups and conversation pieces. Around this time he also set himself up as a portrait painter. Shortly afterwards, in c. 1731, he executed his first series of modern morality paintings, a totally new concept intended for wider dissemination through engraving. A Harlot's Progress (six scenes, destroyed by fire) was followed by A Rake's Progress (c. 1735, eight scenes, London, Sir John Soane's Museum) and Marriage a la Mode (c. 1743, six scenes, London, National Gallery). From 1735 to 1755 he ran his own academy in St. Martin's Lane. Indeed, Hogarth did more than any other artist to establish a credible English school of painting. In the late 1730s he gathered a group of painters together to paint history paintings for presentation to Thomas Coram's Foundation, the exhibition of which was immensely successful. In 1753 he published The Analysis of Beauty, written from the conviction that an artist has a better understanding of the arts than do connoisseurs [Benezit V, 581-582]
L. Hopkins (19th century): Illustrator working in New York around 1870.
Pedro Hortigosa (Segovia, 1811 – Madrid, 1870): Painter and engraver. It is well-known his engraving of Queen Isabel II [Benezit V, 623]
Arthur Boyd Houghton (India, 1836 – London, 1875): Genre painter, watercolorist and illustrator. His work was varied and was revered during the mid-19th century. He traveled to America and Russia, creating illustrations for The Graphic and for numerous books, including The Arabian Nights and Don Quixote. He worked only as an illustrator for a long period of his life, but since 1860 he began to produce oil paintings and watercolors too. Between 1860 and 1870 he exhibited at the Royal Academy, and in 1871 he became an associate of the Water Colour Society. His work was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, being specially interested in subjects of the Middle Ages. Paul Hogath wrote a biography, published in 1981 by Gordon Fraser. Work by this artist is held within various public collections including Tate Britain in London, as well as a number of private collections around the world. Houghton is best known for etchings but also produced a number of oil paintings, many of his wife and children. He also wrote a little poetry which was published in his lifetime [Benezit V, 630]
C. K. Howe (working in Edinburgh?, ending of 19th century – beginning of 20th century): Illustrator and watercolorist. Howe’s illustrations for Don Quixote first appeared in the edition of Paris/London/Edinburgh/New York: Nelson .
Manuel Huete (20th century): Spanish illustrator
Humblot (Paris, 18th century): Illustrator working in Paris around 1732.
Minoru Ikeda (Tokyo, 1941 - ?): Illustrator and designer. Minoru Ikeda studied at the Musashino Fine Arts Academy, graduating in the Graphic Design Department in 1964.
Hesiquio Iriarte (Mexico, 19th century) [AKA: Hesiquio Yriarte]: Illustrator and lithographer. Iriarte worked for some of the main Mexican lithography printing shops, such as Ignacio Cumplido's or Manuel Murguía's, but he established his own workshop too, Iriarte & Cia. He is noted for his mid-nineteenth-century lithographs of Mexican types and for his illustrations in Los Mexicanos pintados por sí mismos.
Robin Jacques (London, 1920 - 1995): Illustrator. Orphaned as a child, Robin Jacques taught himself to be an artist and began working in an advertising agency in his teens. Although he had no formal art training, he enjoyed drawing and used anatomy books, objects in the Victoria-Albert Museum, and his surroundings for his instruction. Jacques served as art editor for Strand magazine and was art director for the Central Office of Information. He began teaching at the Harrow College of Art in 1973 and at the Canterbury Art College and Wimbledon Art College in 1975. His work was published in more than 100 novels and children's books in the 20th century. He is notable for his long collaboration with Ruth Manning-Sanders, serving as the illustrator for many of her collections of fairy tales from all over the world. In much of his work, Jacques employed the stippling technique. He was quoted once as saying: "My preference is for children's books of the more imaginative and fanciful kind, since these leave greater scope for illustrative invention, where I feel most at home. Thus, my work with Ruth Manning-Sanders has proved most satisfying, and the twenty-five books we have done together contain much of the work that I feel personally happiest with".
Miguel Jadraque y Sánchez de Ocaña (Valladolid, 1840 - Madrid, 1919): History and genre painter and copist. He studied at the Fine Arts School of Valladolid under the painter Agapito López de San Román. Later, he traveled to Rome, where he met Mariano Fortuny and Eduardo Rosales, and to Paris. Back in Spain, he settled in Madrid and began to attend the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes, where he was awarded a third medal in 1876 for Una lectura interesante. During some years he visited the Prado Museum to copy Murillo and Camille Bernier. [http://www.museodelprado.es/enciclopedia/enciclopedia-on-line/voz/jadraque-y-sanchez-de-ocana-shymiguel-de-los-santos/]
Ange-Louis Janet "Janet-Lange" (Paris, 1815 – Paris, 1872): History and genre painter, portraitist, illustrator and lithographer. In 1833 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was a pupil of Horace Vernet, Ingres and Alexandre Marie Colin, but was most influenced by Vernet. He made his début at the Salon of 1836 with two paintings, a Stud Farm and Post Stable, and continued to exhibit there until 1870. His subjects consist mostly of hunting scenes and episodes from contemporary French history. Among the latter are works depicting the Crimean War of 1853–56, Napoleon III’s campaigns in Italy in 1859 and the Mexican expedition of 1861. He also painted religious subjects, for example Agony in the Garden, and worked for L’Illustration, Journal Amusant and Tour de Monde [Benezit VI, 30; www.artnet.com]
Juan de Jáuregui (Sevilla, 1583 – Madrid, 1641): Painter and poet. Jáuregui designed the illustrations for Luis del Alcázar’s Investigatio arcani Sensus in Apocalypsi (Antwerp, 1614) and he is also the author of Diálogo entre la Naturaleza y las dos Artes (1618). Enemy of Quevedo and Góngora, he was however a good friend of Cervantes, of whom he is supposed to have painted a portrait. A first portrait of Cervantes, donated by the Conde del Águila to the Royal Academy in 1773, was attributed to him, but the real author was Alonso del Arco. The Royal Academy conserves a second portrait also attributed to Jáuregui (c. 1600), but it is probably a fake or a copy after the original.
Luis Jiménez Aranda (Sevilla, 1845 – 1928): Genre oil painter and watercolorist. Luis Jiménez Aranda, disciple of Eduardo Cano de la Peña (1823 – 1897) at the School of Fine Arts in Sevilla, worked in Rome, Paris and, finally, in Pontoise, town situated in the region of Paris-Isle-of-France where he settled in 1876. In 1889 he was awarded a medal at the Universal Exposition of Paris, receiving another one at the Exposition of Munich in 1890. One year later, also at the Exposition of Munich, he was awarded an honorific mention. Luis Jímenez Aranda has been considered as one of the most important impressionist painters in Spain. After the death of his brother, José Jiménez Aranda, in 1903, he continued the project of his brother to create a complete visual Don Quixote, finishing the illustrations for the first part (chapters 39-52) [Benezit VI, 72]
José Jiménez Aranda (Sevilla, 1837 – Sevilla, 1903): History and genre painter. Jiménez Aranda began his art instruction at the Academy of Fine Arts in Sevilla, where he was admitted thanks to his remarkable drawing skill. He made his debut in 1864, being awarded an honorific mention at the National Exposition of Fine Arts of Madrid in 1866. In 1868, he traveled to Madrid, where he could study Goya and Velázquez’ works at the Prado Museum. Then, in 1871, he also traveled to Rome, where he remained until 1875. In Rome he met Mariano Fortuny, whose influence on Jimenez’ painting was notable. In 1881 he settled in Paris, where he remained for nine years painting scenes set in the 18th century, becoming very successful. In 1890, settled again in Madrid, he would change the subjects of his works, beginning to paint genre scenes. After 1892, year of the death of his wife and his daughter, José Jiménez settled finally in Sevilla; here, he was appointed member of the Academy of Fine Arts and he also became a professor of its school in 1897. Some of his most remarkable works are Un lance en la plaza de toros (1880), Una desgracia (first medal in the National Exposition of 1890) and Una esclava en venta. Jiménez Aranda began to illustrate Don Quixote around 1860 and he continued elaborating illustrations (sketchings) along his whole life in Madrid, Rome, Paris, Sevilla... He intended to illustrate every single remarkable phrase of Cervantes’ novel, but in 1903, year of his death, he had only finished 137 drawings (for chapters 1-7:I) and 552 sketchings (until chapter 38:I included). His brother, Luis Jiménez Aranda, would finish the illustrations for the first part. José Jiménez Aranda did not only illustrate Don Quixote, but also G. Núñez de Ara’s La Visión del Hermano Martín and Tartarín en los Alpes with great success [Givanel, 266; Benezit VI, 72]
Alfred Johannot (Offenbach, 1800 – Paris, 1837): Engraver and History and genre painter. He arrived to Paris in Paris with his father. Tony and Charles Johannot’s brother [Benezit VI, 81]
Tony Johannot (Offenbach, 1803 – Paris, 1852): Engraver, illustrator and genre and history painter. He began working as a burin engraver (in 1827 he participated in the Salon as an engraver), but since 1831 he specialized in painting; in this year, he was awarded with a first medal for a genre scene (in 1848 too). Johannot has been recognized as one of the most representative artists of Romanticism; he used to take part in Chales Nodier’s literary salons in the Bibliotèque de l’Arsenal. Johannot’s most successful works were his vignettes, art where Johannot shows a masterly genius. He elaborated illustrations for more than 150 literary works (more than 3.000 illustrations): Don Quixote (1836), Paul et Virginie (1838), Manon Lescaut (1840), Les Saints Evangiles (1842), Werther (1845), Les Chansons de Béranger, Le Voyage Sentimental, Le Faust... and also works by Molière, Nodier and Balzac. He also collaborated with some illustrated magazines, as L’Artiste, Musée des Familles, L'Illustration or Magasin pittoresque [Benezit VI, 81]
David Claypoole Johnston (Philadelphia, 1797/99 – Dorchester, 1865): Acquafortist, engraver and designer for lithography and xylography. Johnston studied engraving with Francis Kearney, of Philadelphia, and became an engraver of original caricatures, which found ready sale; but the originals were so readily recognized that they became loud in their complaints and threats, and the print and book-sellers, fearing libel suits, declined to invest their money in his prints, or to expose them for sale. Johnston then adopted the stage, appearing for the first time at the Walnut street theatre on 10 March, 1821, as Henry in Speed the Plow. In 1825 he went to Boston and entered on an engagement at the Boston theatre. At the close of the first season he retired from the stage and set up an engraver's office in that city. In 1830 he began the publication of Scraps, an annual of five plates, each containing nine or ten separate humorous sketches with caricatures of politicians and celebrities. His work brought him both fame and money [Benezit VI, 88]
Jones (18th – 19th centuries): Illustrator. Jones designed one illustration for Don Quixote edition of London: William Miller, 1801.
Louis Jou (Barcelona, 1896 (or 1882) - Baux-de-Provence, 1968) [AKA: Luis Felipe Vicente Jou i Senabre]: Painter, typographer, wood-engraver, and illustrator. Of Spanish origin, Louis Jou moved to Paris in 1902 to work as a typographer; he always insisted he was an "artisan", not a "maître". He learned engraving working for Emile Bernard and Raoul Dufy. He moved to Les Baux in 1916. Besides the wood engravings for which he is best known, Louis Jou also produced etchings and drypoints. His works are highly-demanded by bibliophilers: among others, Montaigne's Les Essais; E. Hello's Physionomie des Saints; Cervantes' Don Quichotte, and Le Jaloux Carrizales d'Estremadures (a translation of El celoso extremeño); Machiavelli's The Prince; V. Hugo's Phrases choisies; Oscar Wilde's Salomé; Boccaccio's Decameron; R. Gourmont's La Petite Ville; Paul Valery's Alphabet; Alfred de Vigny's Poésies; or André Gide's Le Retour de l'Enfant prodigue. [Bénézit, 1999, VII, 608.]
François Joullain (Paris, 1697 – Paris, 1778): Burin engraver and acquafortist. He was a disciple of Claude Gillot (1673 – 1722), whose style Joullain continued. Laurent Cars was his master too. He engraved designs by Watteau, Nicolas Lancret, Gillot, Cabari and, above all, Coypel (“The Assumption of the Virgin”, “Ecce Homo”, “Christ in the sepulcher” and scenes from Moliere’s works and “Don Quixote”) [Benezit VI, 114-115]
Auguste Jourdain (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Jourdain worked for the illustrated journal "L'Illustration" engraving reproductions after great painting masters. In 1863, he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VI, 115]
Fortunato Julián (Burgos, 20th century): Illustrator and painter.
Joan García Junceda i Supervia (Barcelona, 1881 - Blanes, 1948): Joan García Junceda i Supervia, also known as simply Junceda, was one of the most important Catalan caricaturists of the first half of the 20th century. Coming from an Asturian family, he contributed to many of the period's magazines, such as ¡Cu-Cut!, Papitu, Picarol and, most notably, En Patufet. In 1910, he illustrated Les Extraordinàries Aventures d'en Massagran by Josep M. Folch i Torres, the first novel in collection Biblioteca Patufet. He also illustrated several children's books. His style has inspired the following generation of Spanish illustrators, including Batllori Joffré and Serra Massana. [http://www.lambiek.net/artists/j/junceda_joan-garcia.htm]
William Kent (Yorkshire, 1684 – London, 1748): History, portrait and architecture painter, engraver, designer and architect. As painter and designer, he was not very much talented, but he had a wide influence on English liking. He did some architectural designs and illustrations for the works of Pope, Spencer and Gay; these illustrations are not too much worthy. His most well-known design is this Cervantes’ portrait. Circa 1704, he began to work in London as a landscape and portraits painter. In 1710, he travelled to Rome, where he would return twice (the third time in 1730). Definitely established in London in 1719, he received sir Richard Walpole and lord Burlington’s protection. For lord Burlington, Kent worked as an architect, designed and built furniture and temples on a classical theme and also continued with his painting. As an architect, he became quite fashionable. Kent's finest architectural work is undoubtedly Holkham Hall, built for the Earl of Leicester in the Palladian style. Architecture then included more than simple house design, and Kent was involved in the creation of interior fittings and furnishings, most designed in an ebullient Baroque fashion. However, it is not as an architect that Kent is famous, but as the father of the "picturesque", or English landscape garden. Yet Kent was no horticulturalist, he envisioned the landscape as a classical painting, carefully arranged to maximize the artistic effects of light, shape and color. His gardens were dotted with classical temples replete with philosophical associations. Kent's most important gardening creations were at Stowe, Rousham, and Chiswick House. He was appointed court architect and first painter, and also was in charge of Royal Painting Collection conservation. He was buried at lord Burlington’s castle in Chiswick ( [Benezit 1976, VI, 195]
Thomas Kirk (c. 1765 – 1797): History and genre painter, portraitist, miniaturist, engraver and illustrator. Kirk, a pupil of Richard Cosway, exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1785 and 1795 and created many famous engravings based either upon his own work or based on works by (among others) Angelica Kauffmann, Richard Westall or Sir Joshua Reynolds. He was a very noted painter and his history and genre paintings were quite successful. He was a very talented illustrator too and his engravings haven’t got less quality. However, his career was cut short through illness. Working to the end, he died in 1797 of consumption (tuberculosis), just three years after being elected to the Academy of London [Benezit VI, 225]
Walter Klemm (Karlsbad, 1883 – Weimar, 1957): Painter, printmaker, illustrator and wood engraver. Klemm studied art in Vienna, under Hodler and Amiet. As early as 1903 he began creating both lithographs and woodcuts in Austria's capital city. It was here he met and became lifelong friends with another influential printmaker, Emil Orlik. Several years later Klemm moved to Prague and then to Dachau. In 1913 he settled permanently in Weimar and became a professor at that city's Art Academy (Weimarer Kunsthochschule). Klemm's many great woodcuts and lithographs were published both as individual works of art and as illustrations to fine livres d'artiste. In this latter category he illustrated such great works as Don Quixote, Til Ulenspeigel, Reineke Fuchs (1928), Flaubert's St. Julien and Goethe's Faust. Klemm holds an important place in the history of twentieth century German art. Beginning his artistic career with highly finished, realistic subjects –very influenced by Japanese art–, since 1910 Walther Klemm’s technique gradually broadened out to embrace a unique type of black and white impressionism, which was much more lyrical and flowing than the woodcuts of his expressionist contemporaries. The museums of Leipzig, Berlin, Augsbourg and Prague own examples of Klemm's outstanding woodcuts. [Benezit VI, 241; www.artoftheprint.com]
David Knight (1923 - 1982): British illustrator. He attended the Art School at Wimbledon till 1941, when he joined the army. After war, he worked as an architectural draughtsman and freelance illustrator of books, magazines, advertisements, and other commercial items working through the 1950s-70s. Among his most successful works, Paul Gallico's The Small Miracle (1953).
Kukryniksy (Mikhail Kupriyanov, Porfiri Krylov, and Nikolai Sokolov) (Russia, 20th century): The Kukryniksy (Кукрыниксы) were three caricaturists/cartoonists in the USSR with a recognizable style. "Kukryniksy" was a collective name derived from the combined names of three caricaturists, Mikhail Kupriyanov, Porfiri Krylov, and Nikolai Sokolov, who had met at VKhUTEMAS, a Moscow art school, in the early 1920s. The three began drawing caricatures under the joint signature in 1924. They became nationally famous in the 1930s after the rise of fascism, drawing for Krokodil, the Moscow satirical paper. They received international recognition for their attacks on Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels, and Francisco Franco. During the Second World War they established the TASS Windows for political cartoons and posters. They also illustrated a number of books, including Ilf and Petrov's, Nikolay Gogol, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorky and others. The Kukryniksy are also authors of Socialist Realism-style paintings concerned with historical, political and propaganda topics. As individuals, they are also known as landscape and portrait artists. All three were awarded the honorary title of People's Artist of the USSR (1958). They were also recipients of other awards.
Adolf van der Laan (Utrecht, 1684 or 1690 - a.1755): Dutch engraver and designer. We worked for a long time in Paris, and Jan Punt studied under him. He engraved after J. Glauber and Van der Meulen. [Bénézit (1999): VIII, 107.]
Jacques Lagniet (France, c. 1600/20 - 1675): French engraver, illustrator, and editor.
Aglaé Laisné (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver and illustrator. As an engraver, he took part in Edouard Foucaud’s “Les Artisans Illustres” (1841) and in one edition of Shakespeare’s works. He also worked for the “Journal de la jeunesse” engraving vignettes [Benezit VI, 390]
Adolphe Lalauze (Rive-de-Gier, 1838 - Milly, 1906): Illustrator and engraver. Lalauze studied at the School of Fine Arts in Toulouse and, encouraged by one of his professors, Léon Gaucherel, he continued his formation as engraver. In 1872 he made his debut at the Salon, being awarded a third class medal in 1876, a second class medal in 1878 and a medal of bronze in 1889 during the Universal Exhibition. He was also elected Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. Lalauze, who achieved a great fame as a skilful vignettist, illustrated several books and novels, such as Théophile Gautier’s Jean et Jeannette (1894), Goldsmith’s Vicaire de Wakefield (1893) or Jacques Cazotte’s Le Diable Amoureux (1883) [Benezit VI, 393]
Eugène Louis Lami (Paris, 1800 – Paris, 1890) [AKA: Eugène Louis Lamie; Eugène Louis Lamy]: Genre painter, watercolorist and lithopgrapher. After first studying with Horace Vernet (1789 – 1863), Eugene Lami was sent to train with Baron Antoine-Jean Gros at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. During his time at the school, Lami learned the watercolor medium from R.P. Bonington. He initially worked in lithography that were commercial and occasionally depicted war scenes; he is the author of about 344 lithographies. His military paintings founded his reputation among the French court. He was commission by Louis-Philippe to create a series of paintings for the Versailles chateau. In his independent projects, Lami focused on court life before turning to watercolors and historical events. He has been considered as an elegant and expressive painter. Lami was a founding member of the Society of French Watercolorists and in 1837 he was awarded with the Legión d’honneur. He also illustrated Jules Janin’s L’Hiver et l’Eté and Alfred de Musset’s Oeuvres [Benezit VI, 405-407]
Jean-Paul Laurens (Fourquevoux, 1838 – Paris, 1921): History painter. Laurens was from a very modest background and started his career as a simple colour grinder for an itinerant Piedmontese master. He went on to receive training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse (1854) and obtained a municipal grant to study in Paris (1860). Laurens often went to the studio of the history painter Léon Cogniet and there he met the woman he was to marry, Madeleine Willemsens (1869), the daughter of his first teacher. They had two sons. He also studied with Alexandre Bida. From 1863 onwards, he regularly participated in the Salon. He was noticed for his portrayal of Pope Formose and Etienne VII (1870) and also for The Death of the Duke of Enghien (1873). He became increasingly popular and had his own retrospective exhibition at the Universal Exposition in Paris (1878). Henceforth, he was among the most respected artists of his time, revered by Rodin and later Péguy and Gide. His reputation was finally established when he was chosen to replace Meissonier in the Fine Arts Academy (1891). Finally, he became director of the Fine Arts school in Toulouse (1893), where he trained many of his own students. Laurens was widely awarded: Légion d’honneur (1874), Medal of Honor (1877), Officier de la Légion d’honneur (1878) and Grande Croix (1900) [Benezit VI, 481]
Hippolyte Lavoignat (Laon, 19th century - ¿?): Engraver and landscape painter. Between 1841 and 1859 he exposed in the Salon. He was one of the best known wood engravers c. 1830, being especially successful engraving designs after Meissonier, Dauzats, Descamps or Raffet [Benezit VI, 493]
Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier (Rouen, 1738 – Paris, 1826) [AKA: Jean-Jacques-François Lebarbier “l'aîné”]: Neoclassical history painter. He began his art studies in Rouen; then, he continued his instruction in Paris at the “Ecole de l'Académie Royale”. Le Barbier traveled to Switzerland to prepare several designs about the most picturesque places for Zurlauben’s Tableau topographique de la Suisse; he also traveled to Rome and returned to Paris. Since 1781 until 1814, he exposed at the Salon. His style follows Vien and David’s neoclassical artistic principles. In 1780, he became an assistant of the Academy; in 1785, an academician; and, in 1816, a member. In 1808, he was awarded with a first medal. As an illustration designer, he elaborated designs for works of Ovid, Racine, Rousseau, Delille and Cervantes [Benezit VI, 501 – 502]
Jacques-Philippe Le Bas (Paris, 1707 – Paris, 1783): Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. Le Bas, Hérrisset’s disciple, engraved religious, historical and genre scenes, portraits, coats of arms and landscapes. Member of the Academy since 1734, he exposed at the Salon between 1737 and 1781 [Benezit VI, 502]
Brinsley Le Fanu (1854 - 1929): Illustrator. Son of the Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814 - 1873). He illustrated some of his father's books, such as The Cock and AnchorThe Wyvern Mystery: A Novel (London: Ward and Downey, 1889).
Lechard (Barcelona, 19th century): Designer working in Barcelona around 1858.
Claude? Lefebvre (Paris, end 18th – beginning 19th centuries): Designer and illustrator. Lefebvre worked in Paris for the publisher Didot. His illustrations for Fénelon’s Adventures of Telemachus are well known [Benezit VI, 533]
Lefêvre Jne. (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator and engraver.
Edy Legrand (Bordeaux, 1892 - Bonnieux, 1970) [AKA: Edouard-Léon-Louis Legrand]: Painter and illustrator. Edy-Legrand, after finishing his studies at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris and the Art Academy in Munich, lived and worked primarily as an illustrator for the Tolmer publishing house in Paris. In 1928, he became friend with Bonnard who lived in the same building as him in Paris. Bonnard introduced him to Mary Steiner, director of Knoedler, the New York Gallery on 57th avenue. He participated in the first exhibition of engraved works of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932 where he represented France alongside Picasso, Matisse and Derain: he was the only one to receive an honorable mention. Starting in 1933, he traveled extensively throughout Europe and North Africa, first in Tunisia, Algeria and then Morocco where he eventually settled and stayed 20 years, becoming friend with Jacques Majorelle the son of great art nouveau designer Louis Majorelle, also a great orientalist painter. North Africa strongly influenced the motifs in his orientalist works for which he is the most known and where he produced more than 300 paintings. After the Second World War, he travelld many times to the United States, where he worked as an illustrator for various publishing houses. Apart from his many paintings and sketches executed during his 20-year stay in Morocco (1933 to the early '50s), he illustrated a number of books, beginning with the children story Macao et Cosmage (1919), the first children's book of the NRF, Macao and Cosmage or experience happiness, a book now considered to be a milestone in the history of the illustrated book for children (representing a significant break from the romantic styles of Edmund Dulac, colored by hand in the stencil "stencil" process reflective of the Jazz Fauve movement). He also illustrated several books by Alexandre Dumas, Anatole France, Leo Tolstoi, André Maurois, Henri de Montherlant, Charles Baudelaire and André Malraux, not the least also Alphonse Daudet's Tartarin sur les Alpes (1930), Dante's Divine Comedy (1938), Goethe's Faust (1941) and an edition of Albert Camus's La peste (1950), and various editions of the Bible in the late 1940's and early 1950's.
Horst Lemke (Berlin, 1922 - Brione, 1985): German illustrator and graphic artist. Horst Lemke studied from 1939 to 1941 at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin under graphic artist Gerhard Ulrich. After that, he became a soldier. From 1945 to 1957 he worked in Heidelberg as a commercial artist and illustrator for book and magazine publishers. Since 1957, he lived until his death in Brione near Locarno (Switzerland). After Walter Trier's death in 1951, Horst Lemke illustrated children's books by Erich Kästner, with whom he had a personal friendship. Among the other authors whose books he illustrated are Max Kruse, Astrid Lindgren, the Grimm brothers, Heinrich Maria Denneborg, James Kruss, and Josef Göhlen . Lemke was proposed for the Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1960. He was awarded the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1961 and, in 1983, the 1st Class Federal Cross of Merit.
Paul Alexandre Alfred Leroy (Paris, 1860 - 1942) [AKA: Paul Leroy]: French painter and illustrator. Paul Leroy followed an early education in Odessa and with Alexandre Cabanel in Paris. Between 1881 and 1884 he was awarded the Salon prize. In 1886, he became a member of the Paris Salon and, in 1888, he received a second-class medal. In 1899 he found the society of French orientalists with painter ÃÂtienne Dinet and Baron ChassÃÂ©riau. In 1900 he received a silver medal from the Exposition Universelle and, in 1908, he was made a Chevalier of the LÃÂ©gion dÃ¢ÂÂHonneur. [Benezit: VI, 608]
Charles Robert Leslie (London, 1794 - 1859): English genre painter. His parents were American, and when he was five years of age he returned with them to their native country. They settled in Philadelphia, where their son was educated and afterwards apprenticed to a bookseller. He was, however, mainly interested in painting and the drama, and when George Frederick Cooke visited the city he executed a portrait of the actor from recollection of him on the stage, which was considered a work of such promise that a fund was raised to enable the young artist to study in Europe. He left for London in 1811, bearing introductions which procured for him the friendship of West, Beechey, Allston, Coleridge and Washington Irving, and was admitted as a student of the Royal Academy, where he carried off two silver medals. At first, influenced by West and Fuseli, he essayed high art, but he soon discovered his true aptitude and became a painter of cabinet-pictures, dealing, not like those of David Wilkie, with the contemporary life that surrounded him, but with scenes from the great masters of fiction, from Shakespeare and Cervantes, Addison and MoliÃÂ¨re, Swift, Sterne, Fielding and Smollett. Of individual paintings we may specify Sancho Panza and the Duchess (1824); and the Duke's Chaplain Enraged leaving the Table, from Don Quixote (1849). In 1821 Leslie was elected A.R.A., and five years later full academician.
Rudi Lesser (Berlin, 1901-1988): German illustrator, watercolorist, and lithographer.
Aniano Lisa (Argentina, 20th century): Illustrator. He illustrated several children's editions for Editorial Sopena Argentina.
Ãngel Lizcano Monedero (AlcÃ¡zar de San Juan, 1846 - LeganÃ©s, 1929): History painter and illustrator. Ãngel Lizcano went to Madrid to seven years, where his parents were going to run a bookstore. At fourteen he began studying at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando and there was a pupil of Francisco Mendoza, obtaining the highest grades. He made copies of the Prado Museum, including Goya, VelÃ¡zquez and Murillo, but also contemporary and Leonardo Eugenio Lucas Alenza and other Spanish authors. He was pensioned in 1869 by the Marquis de Bedmar to complete his training in Italy, then traveled extensively throughout Spain taking notes of natural and participated in National Exhibitions of Fine Arts. Also attended the Paris Exposition of 1878. After twenty years of participating in these competitions, was consecrated in his facet as a painter and engraver, who was very fruitful: he made more than eight hundred drawings for all types of magazines, books and posters, especially specialized in illustrated publications like La Lidia and La Semana Ilustrada, but also contributed regularly to La IlustraciÃ³n EspaÃ±ola y Americana, among the books illustrated the Episodios nacionales of Benito PÃ©rez GaldÃ³s, who was a great friend. At Nearing fifty, and because of the death of his wife, he complained of some mental disorders that accompanied him until the end of his life, although he stopped painting and drawing and to escape poverty, he was appointed professor of drawing and color of the CÃrculo de Bellas Artes de Madrid.
Isaias Llopis y Sánchez (Dolores, 1812 – Madrid, 1880): Painter and designer. He studied at the Schools of Murcia and Barcelona. Some of his portraits and drawings are quite remarkable [Benezit VI, 706]
Ludwig Löffler (Francfort-sur-Oder, 1819 – Berlin, 1876): History painter, lithographer and designer. Löffer was a disciple of the German painter Wilhem Hensel (1794 – 1861) in the Academy of Berlin. In 1841, he exhibited in Leipzig, and also visited Paris and Italy [Benezit VI, 714]
Matthias Reiff Longacre (Montgomery County, 1836 - ?): Wood engraver and draftsman. At he age of 17 Longacre was apprenticed to a Philadelphia wood engraver and two years later we went out to Cincinnati for a year. He then went to NYC, worked a short time for Harper's and Leslie's magazines, and about 1858 established his own business. During the Civil War he was military storekeeper at Baton Rouge. After the war he had an engraving and lithography business in Philadelphia for some years, but later he became a plumber and made drawings of industrial plants. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 402]
Tomás López (Madrid, 1730 – 1802): Carthographer. Tomás López de Vargas Machuca was Cartógrafo de los Dominios de Su Majestad since 1770. He was also a member of the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (1764) and of the Royal Academy of History (1776). He is the author of Principios geográficos aplicados al uso de los mapas.
Ricardo López Cabrera (Cantillana, 1866 - 1950): Genre painter. The museum of Sevilla conserves his painting Gladiador victorioso [Benezit VI, 735]
Xan López Domínguez (Lugo, Spain, 1957 -): Spanish illustrator, designer, and writer. Xan López has specialized in illustrating children's literature, having illustrated more than 300 books.
Tomás López Enguídanos (Valencia, c. 1760 – Madrid, c. 1812): López Enguídanos studied at San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia and at San Fernando Royal Academy of Madrid. He was awarded in 1781 and 1784, becoming an academician of San Carlos Academy. In 1804, he was appointed “Grabador de Cámara Honorario”, engraving the portraits of Godoy and Fernando VII. His works as an illustrator and as an engraver are remarkable, such as Views of the Spanish Ports (1785) and Views of El Escorial (1800 – 1807). His brother, José López Enguídanos (1760 – 1812), painted the portrait of Cervantes for Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 – 1798 Don Quixote edition. [Benezit VI, 735]
José López Enguídanos (Valencia, 1760 – Madrid, 1812): Painter of History and genre scenes and engraver. José López Enguídanos, brother of the burin engraver Tomás López Enguídanos, designed the portrait of Cervantes for Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 – 1798 Don Quixote edition. He also engraved several portraits for the collection of Españoles Ilustres [Benezit VI, 735]
Claudio Lorenzale y Sugranes (Barcelona, 1814 – Barcelona, 1889): History and religious subject painter and portraitist. Lorenzale was director of the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona. He was well-known because of his painting of King Alfonso XII, but also worked as designer for glassworkers, engravers and goldsmiths. He was very influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite movement and by Mariano Fortuny [Benezit VI, 738 – 739]
Felix Lorioux (Angers, France, 1872 - 1964): Illustrator, regarded as among the best of French illustrators and the very best of his genre and era. Lorioux worked in a style that was -like many of his peers- heavily and noticeably influenced by the art of the day, that of the Art Nouveau movement in which France was a leading player, and this led to him being invited to work on illustrating major printed works of the day. With a style and substance that exuded fantasy, it would be no surprise when he became much requested as an illustrator of children' books and fairy tales which lent themselves very much to his manner and interpretation. Relying on the use of caricature and bright, cheerful and immediately apparent colour, Lorioux forged a style that was -and remains- very much his own, and became very famous for his illustrations of the works of Charles Perrault, a 17th century collector of folk stories who has been credited by many as being among the inventor of the fairy tale thanks to his efforts at putting these folk tales down on paper. Other Perrault tales illustrated by Lorioux include such standards as Tom Thumb and Puss in Boots, and it is estimated that Lorioux illustrated over one hundred volumes of children's literature alone during his career. Walt Disney himself commissioned Lorioux to render a French edition of Silly Symphonies, but the project fell flat when Disney decreed the drawings too stylized for the desired audience. Nevertheless, Lorioux went from strength to strength in illustration, and continued to work in the world of children's literature for the remainder of his career.
Pierre Luc (Paris, 20th century): Illustrator. He illustrated several editions for Grund, such as Saint-Louis (1933), Charlemagne (1937), Sinbad le Marin. Conte des mille et une nuits, adapté pour la jeunesse (1939), and many others.
Manuel de Macedo (20th century): Portuguese illustrator.
Luis Madrazo y Kuntz (Madrid, 1825 – Madrid, 1897): History painter and portraitist. He was Luis de Madrazo’s son and Federico Madrazo’s brother. Luis Madrazo received his first instruction under his father, when he was fifteen years old he was accepted as disciple by the High School of Fine Arts in Madrid, and, then, he continued his art studies at Rome. In 1856, his painting “Don Pelayo en Covadonga” was awarded with a first medal at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts. He became an academician of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts. His two nephews, Luis and Ricardo de Madrazo, designed two of the illustrations of this same edition (Barcelona: Imprenta de Tomás Gorchs, 1859) [Benezit VII, 55]
Luis de Madrazo (19th century): Painter. He was son of Federico Madrazo. His brother, Ricardo de Madrazo, designed other illustration for this same edition and his uncle, Luis Madrazo y Kunts, the portrait of Cervantes (Barcelona: Imprenta de Tomás Gorchs, 1859) [Benezit VII, 55]
Ricardo de Madrazo y Garreta (Madrid, 1852 – Madrid, 1917): Genre painter. He was son of Federico Madrazo, under whom he began his art instruction. He also was disciple of his uncle Mariano Fortuny. Ricardo de Madrazo exhibited at Paris and, 1889, was awarded with a bronze medal. His brother, Luis, designed other illustration for this same edition and his uncle, Luis Madrazo y Kunts, the portrait of Cervantes (Barcelona: Imprenta de Tomás Gorchs, 1859) [Benezit VII, 55]
Berthold Mahn (Paris, 1881 – Paris, 1975): Painter, illustrator and lithographer. Charles Désiré Berthold-Mahn, forced to work since he was 6 years old at a factory of stoves and cookers, was born with a natural talent for drawing, what motivated him to study design at the School Germain Pilon, future École des Arts Appliqués. During his military service, he met the cubist painter Albert Gleizes, who also encouraged him to continue his art formation. Thanks to Gleizes, he also met other members of the Abbaye de Créteil, a community or phalanstery of artists founded by the French poets Georges Duhamel and Charles Vidrac. Berthold Mahn would become one of the most prolific French illustrators. Among the works illustrated by him, around 50, are Georges Duhamel’s Lettres d’Auspasie (1922), Deux Hommes (1926), Confession de Minuit (1926) and La Pierre d’Horeb Roman (1928), Elémir Bourges’ Le Crépuscule des Dieux (1927), Claude Aveline’s Le Postulat (1928), Henri Béraud’s La Gerbe d’Or (1930), Jean-Richard Bloch’s Et Compagnie (1930) and Cervantes’ Don Quixote. The illustrations for this edition were prepared after sketches from life made during a travel through Spain [Benezit 1, 622; http://www.duhamel-abbaye-de-creteil.com/]
Antonio Manchón Quílez (Xátiva, 1836 - ?): Illustrator and wood engraver (fl. 1862-1876). Machón worked for El Museo Universal engraving “Una Churra en trage de fiesta yendo al baile” [Madrid, 1869]
Guido Manes (Prague, 1828 - Prague, 1880) [AKA: Kuido Manes; Quida Manesa]: Painter, illustrator and engraver. Son of Anton Manes and a disciple of Ruben at the Academy in Prague and of Vautier in Düsseldorf. He exhibited in Viena in 1838 and Paris in 1878. [Benezit VII, 133-134]
Víctor Manzano y Mejorada (Madrid, 1831 - 1865): Spanish painter and engraver. Víctor Manzano was instructed at the Escuela de Bellas de San Fernando under Ceferino Araujo, Joaquín Espalter, and Federico de Madrazo; later, he became a professor of elementary education in this same institution. He traveled to Rome and Paris, where he worked in Picot's studio. Back in Madrid, he made a series of works that he presented at the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes. His Last Moments of Cervantes was awarded a third prize in 1858, and the painting Rodrígez Vázquez visitando la cárcel donde estaba encerrada la familia de Antonio Pérez a second prize in 1862. In the 1860s he practiced etching and collaborated in the illustration of the magazine El Arte en España. He was appointed Infante don Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón's court painter, and cultivated History and portrait painting.
Libico Maraja (Bellinzona, Svizzera, 1912-1983): Illustrator. Maraja was one of Italy's top post-War illustrators. He studied in Lugano and began his career working for the Ala studios. In 1940, he moved to Berlin, where he cooperated with IMA Film, among others of the animated film La Rosa di Bagdad. After the war, he became well-known for his book illustrations for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Pinocchio, Peter Pan, and many other classics. Between 1946 and 1949, he had a brief appearance in comics, when he made stories like La Quercia Maledetta (Dottor Faust) and Un mondo in un albero with Federico Pedrocchi for Topolino (Mondadori).
Stephen Marchesi (Astoria, New York, 1951 -): Stephen Marchesi is an artist who created illustrations for textbooks, magazines, and children's books. As a child, Marchesi drew his own comics. While a student at High School of Art and Design, he worked for Warren Publications. In 1973 he graduated from Pratt Institute. Afterward he spent half a year working as an assistant art director for an ad agency, and then began his career as a freelance illustrator. Marchesi cited his primary influences as being the cover illustrations and interior artwork created by Newell Convers Wyeth for novels published by Charles Scribner's Sons, and movie posters of the 1950s and 1960s. In 1978 Marchesi was hired by Random House to create new cover art for 12 of the paperback editions of its Three Investigators series. Of the nearly 500 book covers that Marchesi has illustrated, he said that he had more freedom while doing these 12 than for any others that he has ever done. These covers were also the last time that he used watercolor; he later switched to acrylic and oil.
Fernando Marco (20th century): Spanish illustrator. Fernando Marco illustrated several books for youngs and children in the collection 'Biblioteca Literaria del Estudiante', such as Don Quijote, Fábulas y cuentos en verso, or Exploradores y conquistadores de Indias: relatos geográficos. He also illustrated Juan Ramón Jiménez' Platero y yo (1914).
Ricardo Marín Llovet (Barcelona, 1874 - Mexico, 1955): Painter and illustrator. He studied Law in Barcelona, but he devoted himself to painting and drawing. As an illustrator, he worked in numerous magazines and newspapers such as El gato negro, Hispania, Madrid cómico, Blanco y Negro, La esfera, or La Ilustración Hispano-Americana. In 1908, he took part at the General Exhibition of Fine Arts, in 1912 at the National, and in 1921 at the 8th Salón de Humoristas. Earlier, in 1912, he founded El Gran Bufón, of which he also became his director.
Ernest Marriott (end of 19th century – beginning of 20th century): Illustrator working in London around 1908. Maybe related (a son?) to the painter and engraver Frederick Marriott.
Wilhelm Nicolai Marstrand (Copenhagen, 1810 – Copenhagen, 1873): Genre and history painter, illustrator and portraitist. Marstrand was a disciple of Danish neoclassical painter Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg (1783 – 1853) at the Royal Danish Academy of Art of Copenhagen. Between 1836 and 1839, he traveled to Germany and Italy (where he returned between 1855 and 1860); then, in 1840, to Munich and Paris. Two years after his return to Copenhagen in 1841, he became a member of the Academy of Copenhagen; in 1848, a professor; and, in 1853, director. Marstrand’s works have a characteristic vivid and exquisite style. He is one of the best known artists belonging to the Golden Age of Danish Painting. [Benezit VII, 205]
Ramón Martí y Alsina (Barcelona, 1826 – Barcelona, 1894): Painter (well-known as landscape painter) and portraitist. When he was 14 he enrolled in the “Escuela de la Lonja”, Barcelona, where he remained for 5 years. In 1848 he went to Paris, where the paintings of Eugène Delacroix and especially of Gustave Courbet influenced his work. Martí Alsina’s Siesta, with its realism that recalls Courbet, has often been called one of the most beautiful paintings of 19th-century Spain. Also significant are his paintings of the female nude, depicted without any romantic idealization and showing the effect of the passage of time on his models. His most important work, however, was as a landscape painter, and he has been seen as the creator of realistic Catalan landscapes. His studies from life of the countryside, woods and seascapes convey an optimistic view of nature. He also excelled in urban scenes, such as View of Boulevard Clichy, which clearly anticipates the Impressionist movement [Benezit VII, 208]
Bartolomé Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, 1844 – Madrid, 1926) [AKA: Bartolomé Maura y Muntaner]: Painter and engraver. Maura worked as an engraver for the Fábrica Nacional de la Moneda y Timbre. In 1877, he engraved Eduardo Rosales’ painting El Testamento de Isabel La Católica. In 1892, Maura engraved a medal to commemorate the IV centenary of the America discovery; this medal was awarded by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Benezit VII, 275]
Théodore Maurisset (working in Paris between 1834 and 1859): Painter, engraver, lithographer and caricaturist [Benezit VII, 277]
Edward McKnight Kauffer (Great Falls, Montana, 1890 – New York, 1954) [AKA: Edward "Ted" McKnight Kauffer]: Painter, designer and advertising poster artist. Kauffer studied in evening classes at the Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco and spent six months at the Chicago Institute of Art. He was first exposed to modern European Art at the Armory Show (1913) in Chicago. It was after this show that he was sponsored by Professor McKnight of the University of Utah to study painting in Paris. Kauffer took McKnight’s name out of gratitude. In 1914, he went to England, where he made his name as a poster artist, and remained there until 1940. His first commissions were for the London Underground. Inspired by the artistic movements of the day –Futurism, Cubism, Art Deco and Surrealism–, Kauffer created hundreds of posters for the London Underground, Shell, British Petroleum and Eastman and Sons. He was an extremely influential designer of posters, theatre costume, exhibition designs, murals, carpets and textiles and he also designed several book jackets and illustrations for the Nonesuch Press (Don Quixote) and Faber and Guyer. In 1930, he became Art Director of the publishing house Lund & Humphries. In 1937, the Museum of Modern Art held a one man show of his work. He returned to the United States in 1940 and did work for Greek War Relief, the US Treasury, American Airlines, the NY Subway, Alfred A. Knopf, the Container Corporation of America and the New York Times. Many retrospective exhibitions of his work have been held, including those at the Museum of Modern Art (New York) and at the Victoria & Albert Museum (London). Kauffer's connections to the artistic avant-garde in France and Britain placed him at the forefront of developments in the visual language of advertising during the 1930s. He ranks as one of the most significant designers of the 20th century in Britain or anywhere in the world. [http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/medalist-emcknightkauffer]
Joseph Kenny Meadows (Cardiganshire, 1790 - ?, 1874): Genre painter and illustrator. Meadows exhibited at the Royal Academy and Suffolk Street between 1830 and 1853. Since 1864, he received a grant from the English government [Benezit VII, 298]
Apeles Mestres (Barcelona, 1854 – 1936): Illustrator, composer, translator, playwright and poet. Apeles Mestres studied at the School of Fine Arts of Barcelona. He published 34 volumes of poetry and 8 of prose, composed more than 100 songs and 18 madrigales, collaborated with composers such as Enrique Granados, Enrique Morera and José Rodoreda, wrote 64 plays and designed around 40.000 illustrations; among them, those for Cervantes’ Don Quixote, for Edward Bulwer Lytton’s Last Days of Pompeii and for some of his own works. He was awarded Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur and was member of several academies [Benezit VII, 357]
Tadeusz Michaluk (Poland, 1938 - ?): Graphic artist. Tadeusz Michaluk worked as a book illustrator and also as a designer of stamps and posters. In 1964, he was awarded the Bronze Medal at the International Book and Illustration Exhibition in Leipzig (Germany).
Miguel de la Cuesta (18th century): Designer and engraver working in Madrid around 1780.
John Mills (London, 18th-19th century): Genre and History painter, portraitist and burin engraver [Benezit VII, 424]
Thomas Milton (c. 1743 – Bristol, 1827): Engraver and landscape painter. Thomas Milton, William Woollett’s disciple (1735 – 1785), worked in London and Dublin, where he prepared 24 plates for Views of Seats of Ireland. He was the president of the Association of Engravers and engraved several plates for an edition of Shakespeare [Benezit VII, 426]
Antonio Mingote Barrachina (Sitges, 1919 - Madrid, 2012): Mingote was a Spanish cartoonist, writer, and journalist. He drew a daily cartoon in ABC since 1953 until his death in 2012.
Pedro Pascual Moles (Valencia, 1741 – Barcelona, 1797): Painter and burin engraver. He studied in Madrid and Paris, where he was a disciple of Nicholas Gabriel Dupuis, French painter. In 1755, he exposed at the Salon. Moles engraved allegorical and religious scenes [Benezit VII, 462]
Charles Monnet (Paris, 1732 - ¿?, after 1808): Landscape, genre, decoration and History painter and designer. He was a brilliant disciple of the Royal Academy, where Restout was his master. He won the first prize in painting with “Nabuchodonosor faisant crever les yeux à Sédicias” (1765). In 1767, the Royal Academy accepted him as an assistant, and Monnet began to take part in its exhibitions. He exposed at the Salon too. He worked profusely as an illustrator, becoming one of the best “vignettistes” of his time. He made remarkable illustrations for La Fontaine’s “Fables” (published by Fessard) and drawings depicting scenes of the French Revolution that were engraved by Isidore-Stanislas-Henri Helman as well as a set of 69 drawings illustrating the history of France under the empire of Napoleon; others of his designs were engraved by Pierre Duflos. At the end of his life, he was named professor of drawing at the l’École de Saint-Cyr. He never was an academician [Benezit VII, 487]
Bernardino Montañés (Zaragoza, 1825 – Zaragoza, 1893): Painter and portraitist. He was disciple of Federico Madrazo and F. Llovet. His paintings for different churches in Zaragoza are quite remarkable [Benezit VII, 496]
Roberto Montenegro (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1885 - Mexico City, 1968) [AKA: Roberto Montenegro Nervo]: Roberto Montenegro was a painter, muralist and illustrator, who was one of the first to be involved in the Mexican muralism movement after the Mexican Revolution. His most important mural work was done at the former San Pedro and San Pablo monastery but as his work did not have the same drama as other muralists, such as Diego Rivera, he lost prominence in this endeavor. Most of his career is dedicated to illustration and publishing, portrait painting and the promotion of Mexican handcrafts and folk art.
Tomás Moragas y Torras (Gerona, 1837 - Barcelona, 1906): Painter. Moragas served his apprenticeship with the silversmith and medalist Josep Pomar i Llaró, who allowed him time to study at the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona, where he graduated in 1850. He formed friendships with Fortuny, Tapiró, Jeroni Suñol, and others. At Fortuny's request he went to Rome (1857), accompanied by Suñol, returned to Barcelona (1864), and then went back to Rome for three years. After a brief sojourn in Naples he returned to Barcelona, where he remained until 1876, making several trips to Rome in the meantime. He founded an art school, which was attended by Rusiñol, and from 1897 taught at the School of Fine Arts. His work is exhibited in the museums of modern art in Barcelona and Madrid. His production of watercolors is remarkable [Benezit VII, 517]
José Moreno Carbonero (Málaga, 1860 – 1942): Genre and landscape painter. Moreno Carbonero, a disciple of Bernardo Ferrándiz and San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid, worked in Madrid as a painter and as a professor, being Salvador Dalí one of his disciples. He has been considered as one of the painters of the Quixote, being interested for this subject in several occasions. He painted The scrutiny of don Quixote’s library, Don Quixote’s adventure with the cart of the Cortes de la Muerte (1878) –awarded a second class medal at the National Exhibition in Madrid–, The two friends (Rocinante and the donkey) –awarded a Great Diploma of Honor at the Exhibition of Berlin (1891)–, Sancho’s banquet in Barataria Island (1911), among others. The painting Don Quixote’s adventure with the cart of the Cortes de la Muerte was copied and engraved in wood by Carlos Penoso and published at La Ilustración Española y Americana (nº 18, 1878) [Benezit II, 517; Ashbee 281; Givanel 255-260]
Henri Morin (Strasbourg, 1873 -ÃÂ 1961): Illustrator and comic creator. Morin studied fine arts in Paris and, from 1897 to 1925, he was one of the main illustrators of the periodical Mon Journal. He was a successful illustrator of children's books from 1906. Some of his illustration work was sequential, such as his illustrations for AndrÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ© Lichtenberger's Nane et ses BÃÂÃÂªtes, that appeared in La Semaine de Suzette. From 1925, he spent most of his time doing religious art. Among the works illustrated by Morin: Lewis Carrol's Alice au Pays des merveilles and De lÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂAutre cÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ´te dÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¹ miroir (1935), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm's Contes, Jean de La Fontaine'Âs Cent fables choisies and Charles Perrault's Barbe-Bleu.
Edmond Morin (Havre, 1824 - Sceaux, 1882): Influential nineteenth century French etcher, lithographer, wood engraver and illustrator. Edmond Morin studied art in Paris in the studio of Gleyre. Shortly after completing his education Morin left Paris for London and remained in that city for eight years (1849-1857). During his London years the artist achieved a large reputation for both his illustrations and wood engravings in such major publications as The Illustrated London News and Pen and Pencil. Morin returned to Paris in 1857 and immediately began exhibiting his art at the Salon. During the following years Edmond Morin frequently contributed art to such journals as Magasin pittoresque, l'Illustration, le Monde illustre and La Vie parisienne. He also illustrated such books as L'Hotel des Haricots (1864), Paris-guide (1867) and Monsieur, Madame et bebe (1878). Although a fine landscape and portrait artist, Edmond Morin became most famous for his scenes of everyday life. In this area his splendid ability to capture a moment in time has led some scholars to link his with his Impressionist contemporaries. [Benezit VII, 543-544]
Hans Alexander Mueller (Nordhausen, 1888 – 1962) [AKA: Hans Alexander Müller]: Designer and wood engraver. Mueller was a disciple of the Academy for Graphic Arts of Leipzig and then, after World War I, a professor of woodcutting and engraving at the same institution. He emigrated to the US before World War II, becoming a notable book illustrator. His illustrated books include Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island and Cervantes’ Don Quixote [Benezit VII, 592]
Johann Sebastien Müller (Nuremberg, 1715 – London, after 1785) [AKA: John Müller; John Miller]: Painter, designer and burin engraver. Müller, Weigel and Tyroff’s disciple, worked in England since 1744 and, since 1760, for Boydell. He engraved Van der Neer and Claude Lorrain’s landscapes and religious scenes after Murillo, Barrocci and Le Sueur. He also engraved Hayman’s designs for Newton’s edition of Milton [Benezit VII, 595]
Felician de Myrbach-Rheinfeld (Zaleszychi, 1853 – Klagenfurt, 1940) [AKA: Felician Baron de Myrbach-Rheinfeld]: History painter, engraver and illustrator. He made his debut in Vienna in 1877 and, four years later, in 1881, he moved to Paris, where he collaborated with notable illustrators and became a talented and modern illustrator. He illustrated, among other works, François Coppée’s Oeuvres Complètes (1864-1887 ; 1 frontispiece and 300 designs), Edmond About’s Tolla (1889) and Adalbert von Chamisso’s Peter Schlémihl. In 1900, during the Universal Exhibition, he was awarded a golden medal [Benezit: 1976, VII, 632]
Célestin François Nanteuil-Leboeuf (Rome, 1813 – Marlotte, 1873): Genre painter, designer engraver, acquafortist and lithographer. Nanteuil-Leboeuf was a youthful prodigy, developing a personal and recognizable style quite early on; when he was only 17 years old, he illustrated with lithographs Vogel’s L’Ange déchu, already showing his famous “tachiste” style. Originally a student of Ingres in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of Langlois, he was clearly a Romantic. His illustrations for Renduel’s edition of Victor Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris (1836) are very remarkable; Nanteuil was a close friend of this writer. His style was very appropriate for illustrating the imaginative creations of Romantic poets and writers. In 1867, he became Director of the Academy of Fine Arts and, in 1869, he was awarded with the Légion d’honneur. He, perhaps, is best known today for his numerous and very effective lithographs [Benezit VII, 650-651]
Takashi Naraha (Tokyo, 1930 - ?): Illustrator and painter. Takashi Naraha studied painting at the Musashino Fine Arts Academy. He was a member of the group "Hakusankai", of the Art Publishers Association, and of the exhibition White and Black. He illustrated several magazines, journals and books.
Sandro Nardini (20th century): Italian illustrator of books for children, such as The golden bird, and other fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm, The lion and the carpenter: and other tales from the Arabian nights, or The young king and other fairy tales.
J. Narváez (working in Madrid, 19th century): Spanish illustrator. Narváez designed two of the illustrations for Don Quixote edition of Madrid: Biblioteca Universal Ilustrada, 1875 (and 1877).
Agustín Navarro (Murcia, 1754 – Madrid, 1787): Painter. He was a disciple of Alejandro and Antonio González Velázquez, as Luis Paret y Alcázar was too. He studied in Rome and made several paintings for churches in Madrid, Toledo and Mazarrón [Benezit VII, 666]
Otto Neussel (19th century): Geographer and engraver. Neussel engraved many of the maps for Atlas Geográfico Universal bajo la Dirección del Dr. D. Juan Vilanova y Piera published by Astort Hermanos (Madrid, 1877). He was Socio de número de la Sociedad Geográfica de Madrid, Socio Honorario de la Sociedad de Escritores y Artistas and Caballero de la Real y Distinguida Orden de Carlos III. On March 8, 1892, he gave the lecture Los cuatro viajes de Cristobal Colón para descubir el Nuevo Mundo según los manuscritos de Fr. Bartolomé de las Casas at the Society of Geography.
Dorothy Newsome (20th century): British illustrator.
Carlo Nicco (Torino, 1883 - 1973) [AKA: Carlo Emilio Nicco]: Designer, painter, engraver, and illustrator. Carlo Nicco began to work as a wood engraver; later, formed as a lithographer, he became a poster designer for cinema and theater. He directed Cuor d'oro, a juvenile magazine (1921-24), and collaborated with Numero, La Lettura, Il Corriere dei Piccoli, and La Festa. He illustrated around 150 books, mainly for editors in Piamonte (U.T.E.T., Lattes, SEI, Paravia).
William Nicholson (1872 - 1949) [AKA: Sir William Newzam Prior Nicholson]: English painter, illustrator and author of children's books. He was the son of William Newzam Nicholson, an industrialist and Conservative MP of Newark, and Annie Elizabeth, the daughter of Joseph Prior and Elizabeth of Woodstock, Oxon. He was a student at Hubert von Herkomer's art school. Nicholson's partnership with James Pryde, his brother-in-law, was conspicuous for striking graphical work and woodcuts -they were known as the Beggarstaff Brothers, and their poster work was significant historically. He married Mabel Pryde (1871 - 1918), also an artist, in 1893. After 1900 he concentrated on painting, encouraged by Whistler. He was knighted in 1936. Ben Nicholson and Nancy Nicholson were his children; as was the architect Christopher 'Kit' Nicholson. He was involved in illustrating early volumes from Robert Graves, with Nancy, who was Graves' first wife. He wrote and illustrated characteristic children's books: The Velveteen Rabbit (1922) by Margery Williams and his own Clever Bill (1926) and The Pirate Twins (1929) for Faber & Faber. He also designed stained glass, notably a memorial window at St Andrew's Church, Mells.
Gaston Niezab (1886 - 1955) [AKA: Gaston Niezabytowski]: Gaston Niezabytowski was a very productive French comics artist, whose most notable work is the Petit-Riquet Reporter series. He signed most of his work with Niezab, or its anagram Bazein. He became an illustrator after working as a decorator in the Parisian Opera. From 1912 to the late 1930s his illustrations were published in Le Bon Point Amusant and in several magazines of the Offenstadt brothers (L'Intrépide, Le Petit Illustré). He created his first comics in the mid-1930s for publishers like Editions Modernes (Guillaume Tell) and Rouff (Ali Baba et les 40 Voleurs, Le Fantastique Voyage, etc.). After the War, Niezab continued his activities in Coeurs Vaillants, with 'Jack sans Peur'. He specialized in making short comics, contributing to the publications of S.A.E.T.L. At the same time, he took on adapting novels. His first work was Les Misérables, which was published in France-Soir, starting in 1946. This comic is considered the first continuing daily comic in France. Other adaptations of novels followed for Opera Mundi, including Les Deux Orphelines, La Pocharde, La Cousine Bette and Manon Lescaut. In 1948 he took over 'Petit Riquet Reporter' from its creator Dut, and continued it until his death in 1955.
Kathleen Nixon (20th century): British illustrator
Marcel North (Dorking Surrey, England, 1909 - 1990): Marcel North was a designer, water-colorist, engraver, illustrator, writer, and columnist. He was quite influenced by Cubism.
Pierre Noury (Besançon, 1894 - ?): Painter, engraver and illustrator. Noury, disciple of Jean Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian in Paris, exhibited at the Salon of French Artists and at the Salon of Autumn since 1920. He also exhibited at the Salon of the Independents and at the Salon of the Tuileries and took part in other exhibitions in Boston, London, Tokyo and Vienna. In 1925, during the Salon of Decorative Arts, he was awarded a silver medal. Noury designed the costumes and sets for Le Flem’s opera Le Rossignol de Saint-Malo and he also illustrated several books; many of them were young readers' editions for the editor Ernest Flammarion: Andersen's Contes, Grimm's Contes, Contes des Mille et une nuits, Perrault's Contes, La Fontaine's Fables, Swift's Gulliver à Lilliput, Beecher-Stowe's La case de l'oncle Tom, Wyss' Le Robinson suisse and Daniel de Foë's Robinson Crusoé. Noury wrote a History of painting too [Benezit VII, 759]
Francesco Novelli “the elder” (Venice, 1767 – Venice, 1836): Engraver, painter and designer. He was son and disciple of Pietro Antonio III Novelli. Francesco Novelli worked at the Academy of Venice and at the Academy of Rome. He copied with excellent talent Rembrandt’s etchings. His perfects copies can be confused with the originals. He engraved designs after Mantegna too. Novelli was member of different academies. His son, Francesco Novelli, was an engraver too [Benezit VII, 761]
Diego de Obregón (17th century): Painter and engraver. Obregón, disciple of his father, Pedro de Obregón “the young”, worked in Madrid as an illustrator for religious books; also books about birds and plants. His brother, Marcos de Obregón, was an engraver too. Diego de Obregón was the first Spanish illustrator of Don Quixote [Benezit VII, 775]
Francisco Ortego (Madrid, 19th century): Illustrator. He worked for the Ilustración Española y Americana.
Francisco Pacheco (Sanlúcar de Barrameda, c. 1564 - Sevilla, 1644): Painter. He was a student of Luis Fernandez, and did much of his learning by copying works of the Italian masters. He visited Madrid and Toledo in 1611, studying the work of El Greco, then returned to Seville and opened an art school. Best known as the teacher of Diego Velázquez and Alonso Cano, and for his textbook on painting that is an important source for the study of 17th-century practice in Spain.
Roberto J. Páez (Buenos Aires, 1930 -): Draftsman and engraver. Roberto J. Páez studied at the Prilidiano Pueyrredón National School of Fine Arts, graduating as a Professor of Printmaking. In 1965, he won the International Competition of the University of Buenos Aires Editorial to illustrate a special edition of Don Quixote, a work that gave him worldwide fame. He has also illustrated books by Jorge Luis Borges, an edition of Martín Fierro, and Lucio V. Mansilla's A Trip to the Indians Ranqueles. He was a Professor and Director of the School of Fine Arts of Catamarca, the Industrial School of Graphic Arts, and the Carlos Morel School of Fine Arts (Quilmes, Buenos Aires Province). He was awarded a first prize at the II Biennale of Sacred Art in the specialty of engraving (1954), the Olivetti Award Hall in the Salón de Dibujantes (1962), and the Konex Award for Engraving (1982).
Jaume Pahissa y Laporta (Sans, 1846 – Barcelona, 1928): History and landscape painter and illustrator. He was a disciple of Francisco Laporta y Valor and Ramón Martí y Alsina. His illustrations for Don Quixote were very popular thanks to the sets of cards published after them [Benezit VIII, 84]
Tony Palazzo (New York, 1905 - 1970): He studied at Columbia and New York Universities. He worked as an art director for various magazines for many years, such as Esquire, Coronet, Apparel Arts and Colliers, and taught advertising design at the Pratt Institute. In 1937, he worked as the designer for the John Dos Passos book, The Villages Are the Heart Of Spain. In the 1940's, he began illustrating children's and young adult books. Tony Palazzo received a Caldecott Honor Award in 1947 for Timothy Turtle by Al Graham. He illustrated and/or wrote and illustrated over 65 books for children and young adults (Susie the Cat, Charley the Horse, and other award-winning books). [Something About the Author, vol. 3, pp.152-155; Illustrator's Of Children's Books 1946-1956, p. 163]
Hans Pape (Hamburg, 1894 - ?): Painter and designer. Pape, a disciple of P. von Halens, worked in Munster mainly [Benezit VIII, 118]
Luis Paret y Alcázar (Madrid, 1746 – Madrid, 1799): Painter, academician and engraver. He had an excellent classical education, which he completed studying oriental languages. He was instructed by Antonio González Velázquez, as Agustín Navarro was too, and, in Paris, by Charles-François de la Traverse, Boucher’s disciple. After diverse study travels to Italy, Netherlands and France, he took up residence in Madrid. Paret received several prizes from San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid), of which he became a member. By order of Carlos III, he painted the ports of Spain and the most picturesque points of Spanish maritime border. He also designed numerous and remarkable illustrations and frontispieces. His style follows Watteau, Pannini and Longhi; it is agile, delicate, quick and mannerist, appropriate to Spanish Borbons’ liking. Benezit indicates that Paret made a remarkable series of illustrations for “Don Quixote” that never was engraved. He took part in Madrid: Sancha, 1797 – 1798 and Madrid: Sancha, 1798 – 1799; for this last edition, health problems prevented Paret from finishing the whole series, so it was completed by Francisco Alcántara [Benezit VIII, 125; Lenaghan 247-256]
José Passos (19th-20th century): Spanish illustrator working in Barcelona c. 1903.
Hermann Paul (Paris, 1874 â Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, 1940): Painter, engraver and designer. Hermann Renè Georges, Hermann-Paul, was an artist of considerable scope. He was a well-known illustrator whose work appeared in numerous newspapers and periodicals. His fine art was displayed in gallery exhibitions alongside Vuillard, Matisse and Toulouse-Lautrec. Early works were noted for their satiric characterizations of the foibles of French society. His points were made with simple caricature. His illustrations relied on blotches of pure black with minimum outline to define his animated marionettes. His exhibition pieces were carried by large splashes of color and those same fine lines of black. Hermann-Paul worked in ripolin, watercolors, woodcuts, lithographs, drypoint engraving, oils, and ink. On the eve of the First World War, he made quite an impression as part of M. Druet's "First Group." As noted by the Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, the exhibition was "chiefly remarkable for a series of paintings or drawings - it is hard to say which - by M. Hermann-Paul in a new medium which is simply ripolin". The Great War soon intervened and Hermann-Paul would document its tragedy as well as its foibles. After the war, woodcuts, both used as fine arts prints and as illustrations for books become his media of predilection. Despite a large number of reproductive illustrations for Candide, Hermann-Paul became mostly a fine artist after 1920. His inspirations become more literary than journalistic and his style evolved from a belle Ã©poque line to a modernist simplification. It is unjust to just list a few publications, as so many of Hermann-Paul's woodcut illustrations from the 1920s and 30s deserve praise, however one should particularly mention La GÃ©nÃ¨se (LÃ©on Pichon, Paris â France, 1921), Oeuvres de FranÃ§ois Villon (LÃ©on Pichon, Paris â France, 1922), Douze Dessins pour lâAmour de Goya (Editions du Balancier, Liege â Belgium, 1932), and Don Quichotte (Editions du Balancier, Liege â Belgium, 1932) [Benezit V, 506]
Ralph Peacock (London, 1869 - London, 1946): Portrait and landscape painter. Peacock entered the R.A. Schools, where he won a gold medal and the Creswick Prize, 1887. He exhibited at the R.A. from 1888 and won a gold medal at Vienna 1898 and a bronze medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition 1900.
Alexis Peclers (20th century):
Jules Pelcocq (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator working in Paris around 1887. He worked for Le Journal Amusant.
José Luis Pellicer y Fener (Barcelona, 1842 – Barcelona, 1901): Genre painter and illustrator. Pellicer was disciple of Marti i Alsina (1826 – 1894) and, as a genre painter, exhibited in Madrid (1871) and Barcelona (1878). In Barcelona, Pellicer worked for several publications as an illustrator and also prepared some illustrated reports about the Russian-Turkish War. He was the art director of Montaner & Simon and designed illustrations for many editions of the “Biblioteca Universal” (Don Quixote, La leyenda del Cid...). Pellicer was the director of the Museum of Engravings in Barcelona, the first president of the “Instituto Catalán de Artes del Libro” and took part in the organization of the 1888 Universal Exhibition [Benezit VIII, 199]
G. Pérez Duriaz (20th century): Spanish illustrator.
E. Petit (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator (and engraver?) working in Paris around 1883.
Antoine Alphée Piaud (Saint-Etienne, 19th century - ¿?): Wood engraver and painter. Piaud worked in Paris between 1836 and 1866. Between 1837 and 1852 he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VIII, 291]
Bernard Picart (Paris, 1673 – Amsterdam, 1733) [AKA: Bernard Picard]: Burin and wood engraver, designer and miniaturist. Picart studied drawing at the Académie Royale and was instructed in engraving by his father, Etienne Picart “le Romain” (1632 – 1721), Benoît Audran and, after 1687, by Sébastien Leclerc. His first signed engraving was the “Hermaphrodite” (1693) after Poussin. In 1696 he left France. The Antwerp Academy awarded Picart a prize for drawing, and he executed several engravings there, before moving in 1696 to the Netherlands, where he worked mainly on book illustration. At the end of that year, he returned to France, but, in 1710, he was back in The Haye and settled in Amsterdam the following year, converting to the Protestant faith. His designs are elegant and precise, synthesis of Dutch and French likings. He is the most remarkable Dutch engraver in the first third of the 18th century [Benezit VIII, 296]
Charles Henri Pille (Essonnes, 1844 – Paris, 1897): History and genre painter, portraitist, designer and engraver. Pille, a disciple of Barrias, made his debut at the Salon of 1865. In 1869 he was awarded, but his first great success was in 1872 with Jean Frédéric électeur de Saxe, continuant sa partie d’échecs au moment ou le duc d’Albe lui annonce sa condamna à mort, awarded a second class medal. In 1882 Pille was decorated as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur and, in 1889, he was awarded a golden medal during the Universal Exhibition. Pille was an excellent portraitist and painter, but he became more successful as an illustrator. His best-known works are the illustrations for Don Quixote, A. de Musset’s Oeuvres complètes and Victor Hugo’s works [Benezit: 1976, VIII, 334-335]
Bartolomeo Pinelli (Rome, 1781 – Rome, 1835): Painter, sculptor in clay, designer and engraver. Bartolomeo Pinelli was one of Ottocento Italy's most popular draftsmen. Living and working primarily in Rome, Pinelli studied at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome and at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna, where he was supported financially by the nephew of Pope Benedict XIV. His first collection of engravings was published in 1809 and represents Raccolta di costumi pittoreschi (50 plates), a very popular set between tourists in Rome of that time. His other famous series were Istoria degli Imperatori (100 plates; 1825) and Seven hills and views of Rome (1827). Pinelli's favorite themes were costumes of classic ages, derived directly from Roman monuments and everyday life of Roman people. He also designed and engraved a great number of illustrations for Eneide (1811), Roman history (1816), Meo Patacca (1823), Divine Comedy (1825-26), Free Jerusalem (1827), Furious Orland (1829), Don Quixote (1833) and others [Benezit VIII, 344]
Héliodore Joseph Pisan (Marseille, 1822 – Bailly, 1890): Genre, landscape and dead nature painter and engraver. In 1849, he exhibited by the first time in Paris. Pisan worked principally as an engraver for illustrated book. He was awarded as “Chevalier de la Légion d´honneur” [Benezit VIII, 358]
Eusebio Planas (Barcelona, 1833 – Barcelona, 1897): Lithographer, designer and watercolorist. He was disciple of Ribo [Benezit VII, 373]
Willy Planck (Stuttgart, 1870-Herenberg, 1956): Painter and illustrator.
Nicolas Jean-Baptiste Poilly (1712 - 1758 (?)): French printer, engraver, draftsman, and book-map seller.
Victor-Armand Poirson (French, 19th - 20th centuries): Illustrator working in Paris around 1900.
Denis Henri Ponchon (18th-19th centuries): French illustrator
Henri Pottin (Paris, 1820 - Paris, 1864) [AKA: Louis Aimé Henri Pottin]: History and genre painter, portraitist, engraver and lithographer. He was a disciple of Tony Johannot and Picot. Between 1845 and 1864 he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VIII, 452]
William Henry Powis (1808 - 1836): English engraver and illustrator. He became especially successful with his engravings for the "Bible" (1835) [Benezit VIII, 463]
Johann Georg Preisler (Copenhagen, 1757 - Copenhagen, 1831) [AKA: Johann Georg Preissler]: Designer and engraver. He was son and disciple of the burin engraver Johann Martin Preisler (1715 – 1794). Georg Preisler worked at the Academy of Copenhagen and, in 1780, he won a golden medal. In 1781, he traveled to Paris to be instructed by Jean George Will. In 1787, he was named a member of the Royal Academy of Paris and, one year later, he returned to Denmark, where he was nominated for the Academy of Copenhagen. Talented engraver [Benezit VIII, 478]
Ramón Puiggarí (Barcelona, 1820 – 1894): Illustrator working in Barcelona around 1876.
Karel Purkyne (Breslau (Wroclaw), 1834 - Prague, 1868) [AKA: Karla Purkyne]: Bohemian painter and critic of Prussian birth. He was little known as a painter in his lifetime, but he was rediscovered by the modernists at the turn of the century, who admired him for challenging the artistic conventions of his time. He was the son of the physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkyne, in whose salon he met the élite of the patriotic intelligentsia. He studied first at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts in 1851 under Christian Ruben (1805–75), then at private art schools in Munich (1854–5) under Johann Berdellé (1813–76), in Paris (1857) under Thomas Couture and in Vienna (1861) under Carl Rahl. This diversity of study contrasts with his abiding preoccupation with the Old Masters, especially the Italians and Rembrandt. He painted mainly portraits and still-lifes, at first partly under the influence of Bohemian Baroque painting. These works were all painted within a short period and the portraits were exclusively of his friends and relatives; most of them are now in the Prague National Gallery. [Benezit VIII, 525]
Luis Quintanilla Isasi (Santander 1893 - Madrid, 1978): Spanish muralist, painter, engraver, illustrator and draftsman. Luis Quinatnilla experienced his first contacts with the arts there through his friend Gerald de Alvear and the brothers Solano. His family moved to Madrid in 1905, where he began his studies of nautical architecture, taking trips to England, Brazil, and then Paris, where he became friends with Juan Gris, and began painting in a Cubist style. Quintanilla returned to Spain in 1915, showing his work in the first and last solo exhibition in Santander. Evolving in his style from a purely cubist language, he returned to Paris in 1920, becoming friends with Modigliani, Vlaminck, and Maeztu, as well as with writer Ernest Hemingway. On a stipend, he traveled to Italy to study painting en plein air, returning to Madrid in 1926. He became a member of the socialist party and got caught up in the tumultuous political events in his country during that time, culminating in his imprisonment in October of 1934 for hosting the revolutionary committee of the October revolt in his studio. With the international intellectual community rallying to his support with protests in the United States, France, and Great Britain, Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos circulating petitions for his immediate release, Quintanilla was released from prison after serving a little over eight months, and was actively involved in the Spanish Civil War which started in July of 1936. During his imprisonment, friends had organized an exhibition of his Madrid street scenes at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York City, which was accompanied by a catalog written by Hemingway and Dos Passos. This was to be followed by an exhibition of his war drawings in 1938 at the Barcelona Ritz-Carlton Hotel and then at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, again accompanied by a catalog written by Ernest Hemingway. He was forced into a long exile at the fall of the Spanish Republic in 1939, first living in New York and then in Paris. A year after the death of General Francisco Franco, Quintanilla returned to Madrid, where he died in 1978.
Abraham Raimbach (London, 1776 – Greenwich, 1843): Engraver, acquafortist and miniaturist. He was a disciple of the engraver J. Hall and in the schools of the Royal Academy. He began working as a miniaturist for several booksellers; then, he continued working as an engraver. He engraved illustrations for one edition of “The Thousand and one nights” and, between 1797 and 1805, he exposed some portraits in the Royal Academy [Benezit VIII, 585]
Georges Regnault (1898-1979): French painter.
Imre Reiner (Versec, 1900 - Lugano, 1987): Hungarian-Swiss painter, graphic artist and important Typographer. Imre Reiner attended the National School of Sculpture Zalatua and the School of Art in Frankfurt. From 1921 he studied with Ernst Schneidler at the School of Applied Arts in Stuttgart. Several meetings with Paul Klee in Weimar. From 1923 to 1927 he worked as a graphic designer in London, New York, Chicago and Paris. After his return to Stuttgart he continued to study as a master student at Ernst Schneidler. Imre Reiner in 1930 lived in Paris a year later he moved to Ruvigliana-Lugano (Ticino) and from then worked there as a painter, graphic designer, typographer and illustrator. He designed twelve different type fonts, wrote several books about engraving, type fonts and graphic art, and illustrated more than thirty works by authors such as Cervantes, Voltaire, Aristophanes, John Donne, among others.
José Luis Rey Vila (Cádiz, 1900 - 1983): José Luis Rey Vila studied at the Academies of Cádiz and Barcelona. He is famous for his drawings of the Spanish Civil War he signed under the pseudonym of SIM. He is also very known for his drawings and water-colors of Don Quichotte, of the Second World War, of Flamenco dancers, of toreros portraits and corridas scenes, of horses skecthes. He settled in Paris in 1937 and realized many views of Paris.
Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fieve (Rome, 1815 – Madrid, 1891): History painter and portraitist. He was disciple of his father, Juan Antonio Ribera y Fernández (Madrid, 1779 – Madrid, 1860), a History painter and portraitist too, and of P. Delaroche. He also studied at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts and became its director. Carlos Luis de Ribera was a court painter of Queen Isabel II and he was well-known because of his frescoes in different churches of Madrid [Benezit VIII, 726]
Ricard (19th century): Illustrator and lithographer working in Paris around 1866.
George Mather Richards (Darien, Connecticut, 1880 - 1958): Richards received his first artistic education at the Corcoran Art School in Washington, D.C. He continued his studies at the famed Chase School in New York, where he studied under Robert Henri and Edward Penfield, and where he was to meet his future wife Gertrude Lundborg. An illustrator by choice, Richards was first art director at Everybody's Magazine in New York. After he left the position in 1914, he became a free lance illustrator, mostly producing work for MacMillian & Company. He illustrated several historical text books, fairy tales, funny adventure stories, books of poetry, and posters. Upon his retirement to Winter Park, Hugh McKean, then Director of the Art Department, engaged Mr. Richards to teach graphic design. [Benezit VIII, 738; http://www.askart.com]
Charles Reuben Riley (London, c. 1752 – London, 1798) [AKA: Charles Reuben Ryley]: History painter, illustrator and burin engraver. Riley began to work as an engraver and, after studying painting with Mortimer, he only worked as a painter and illustrator. In 1780, he exhibited at the Royal Academy by the first time. His ornamental designs for Duke of Richmond’s Goodwood House were especially well-known [Benezit IX, 204]
Ricardo de los Ríos (Valadolid, 1846 – Madrid, 1929): Painter and etcher. Ricardo de los Ríos, disciple of the French Academic painter Isidore Pils (1813 – 1875), worked for a long time in Paris. He was awarded in 1888 a third class medal and in 1889 and 1900 (during the Universal Exposition) two medals of silver. After 1894, he was awarded as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur too [Benezit VI, 749]
G. Rival (20th century): Illustrator working in Paris around 1947 for Editions Hier et Aujourd'hui.
Rosado Rivas (20th century): Spanish illustrator working in Madrid by the first half of the 20th century.
José Rivelles (Valencia, 1778 – Madrid, 1835) [AKA: José Ribelles y Helip]: History and portrait painter, lithographer and designer. Rivelles painted some frescos in the Royal Palace of Madrid [Benezit VIII, 723]
Mariano de la Roca y Delgado (19th century): Spanish History and genre painter. De la Roca painted Miguel de Cervantes imaginando el Quijote en 1858.
Antonio Rodríguez (Valencia, 1765 – Valencia, 1823): History painter and portraitist. Antonio Rodríguez was a disciple of San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia and, then, a professor of the same institution [Benezit IX, 36]
Manuel Antonio Rodríguez (Madrid, 18th century): Map designer working in Madrid around 1797.
Jacques Roubille (France, mid. 20th century): French illustrator.
Georges Roux (1850? - 1929): French painter and illustrator. Roux, a disciple of Jean-Paul Laurens, illustrated Jean Aicard’s Roi de Camargue (1890) and Ferdinand Fabre’s Taillevent (1895). He worked for the Bibliotheque d’Education et de Récréation and was one of the most prolific illustrators of Jules Verne’s novels (around 1.016 illustrations) [Benezit IX, 145]
Royston (19th century): Stephenson and Royston were a well-known firm of illustrators and engravers in Manchester. Stephenson was a very good line-engraver and, amongst other works, he engraved the greater part of the illustrations in Charles Swain's The Mind, and other poems (Tilt & Bogue, 1841).
François Théodore Ruhierre (Paris, 1808 – Paris, 1884): Burin engraver, painter and medalist. He was nephew and disciple of the burin engraver Edme Jean Ruhierre (Paris, 1789 - ?) [Benezit IX, 173]
Enrico Sacchetti (Rome, 1877 - Florence, 1967): Illustrator, fashion designer, caricaturist and commercial artist. Sacchetti got his diploma at the Istituto Tecnico. He went to the painter Gelati's studio in Florence for a time, but he was mainly self-taught. He first started to work as an illustrator and caricaturist on the Milanese journals Teatro Illustrato and Verde Azzuro. In 1905 he did the illustrations for Le Roi Bombace by F.T. Marinetti. From 1908 to 1911 he lived in Buenos Aires, where he worked as an illustrator for the newspaper El Diario. Later he was in France, where he stayed for three years and was mainly active as a fashion designer. At the outbreak of war he returned to Italy, where he worked as a propaganda artist. He worked on the newspaper La Tradotta. Above all, during the war years, he was active designing postcards.
Emilio Sala Francés (Alcoy, 1850 – Madrid, 1910): Genre and History painter, illustrator and art professor. Emilio Sala Francés moved as a youth to Valencia, where he studied painting with his cousin, Plácido Francés, at the San Carlos Academy and with Salustiano Asenjo. Being seventeen years old, he was awarded a silver medal at the Regional Exposition of Valencia and, four years later, he received another at the National of Madrid with his painting Prisión del Príncipe de Viana. Settled in Paris, Sala Francés became a successful and awarded painter; some years later, back in Madrid, he worked as a professor of the Escuela Especial de Pintura y escultura. One of his best known paintings, La Expulsión de los Judíos de España, was awarded a golden medal in Berlin in 1891 [Benezit IX, 243]
Manuel Salvador Carmona (Nava del Rey, 1734 – Madrid, 1807 or 1820): Engraver and painter. He was the nephew of Luis Salvador Carmona, sculptor (1709 – 1767). He began his artistic training with his uncle and at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). In 1752 he was sent to Paris to learn engraving, specializing in portraiture and historical prints. There he trained with Nicolas-Gabriel Dupuis and produced numerous engravings, among which were prints of some of the best portraits painted at the French court in addition to both past and contemporary religious, allegorical and genre compositions. He joined the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture as an assistant in 1759, presenting a variety of prints after paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Carle Vanloo, Jean-Baptiste Pierre and Alexandre Roslin. He became an academician in 1761, submitting engravings of portraits by François Boucher and Hyacinthe Collin de Vermont. After marrying Margarita Legrand, he returned to Madrid in 1762 and was appointed honorary academician at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 1764, specializing in engraving and painting. He became Director de Grabado at the Royal Academy in 1777. In 1778, having been widowed, he married Ana Maria Mengs, daughter of Anton Raphael Mengs, in Rome and returned with her to Madrid. In 1783 he received the title of Grabador de Cámara del Rey. His royal commissions included an engraving of Luisa of Bourbon, Princess of Asturias (1774), and among his patrons were the Church, aristocracy, printing presses and scholars. His technique was fastidious, and his subject-matter was very varied, ranging from such portraits as José Herrando (1756) to a Holy Family (1781) [Benezit IX, 256]
More information at: www.grobeart.com
José Sancha Pradós (Spain, 1908 - 1994): Spanish painter and illustrator. Son of the Blanco y Negro and ABC illustrator José Sancha, José Sancha Pradós grew up in the cosmopolitan environment of London, where he lived with his family from 1912 to 1923. Back in Madrid, he entered the School of Ceramic. Later, he traveled to Paris, where he came into contact with the main artistic movements of the time. His painting, quite near to the "Escuela de Vallecas", became more naïve and light. During the 30s he combines his role as an easel painter with his work for scenography. After the Spanish civil war, he exiled to Moscow, where he joined his brother in law, the sculptor Alberto Sánchez, and her sister Soledad, married to Luis Lacasa. Believing that artists should keep a political compromise, he joined the Soviet troops in World War II. He lived in Bulgaria, Mexico, England, and East Germany; finally, in 1966, he settled in Madrid. From that moment, landscape becomes the central theme of his work. His palette was characterized by warm and harmonious colors, alternating with cool tones. His landscapes, plunged into a fog, such as the Mancha plain, with white and lonely villages, are conceived as a metaphor for life and Spanish history. In the last stage of his career, he also was interested in portraits.
R. W. Satchwell (18th – 19th centuries): Illustrator and designer. R. W. Satchwell designed the ornamental frames for the illustrations in C. Cooke’s editions of Don Quixote (London: 1796 and later).
Jacob Savery (Amsterdam, 1617 - Amsterdam, 1666?) [AKA: Jacob Savry or Savary III]: Burin engraver and publisher. His father, Salomon Savery, was a burin engraver too, painter and acquafortist. He worked in Amsterdam and Delft [Benezit IX, 319]
Luis Scafati (Mendoza, Arfentina, 1947 -): Illustrator. Luis Scafati studied art at the National University of Cuyo. He made his debut under the pseudonym Fati in the Hortensia review in 1972. Throughout the years, he has contributed to several important magazines and dailies, including Humor, El Péndulo, Fierro, El Periodista, Sur y Clarín in Argentina, El País in Uruguay and Il Manifesto in Italy. He has exhibited his paintings regularly since 1969. Scafati is also active in the illustration and advertising fields. Some of his advertising art was collected in the book Tinta China in 1986. El Viejo Uno Dos appeared in 1989, and collected a series of erotic drawings. In 1995, the video La Metamorfosis was released by Worcel Producciones, which contained a series of drawings inspired by the work of Franz Kafka.
Jean-Frédéric Schall (Strasbourg, 1752 - Paris, 1825): French genre painter.
Laurens Scherm (end of 17th century – beginning of 18th century) [AKA: Lorenz Scherm]: Dutch draughtsman and engraver. He worked in Amsterdam between 1689 and 1707.
Paul Scheurich (New York, 1883 - Brandenburg an der Havel, Gerrmany, 1945): Painter, designer and engraver. Paul Scheurich was a disciple of the Academy of Berlin between 1900 and 1902. He became a professor of the Meissen Porcelain Manufacture and he also made models for the manufactures of Schwarzburg, Nymphenburg and Karlsruhe [Benezit IX, 367]
Julius Schlattmann (Borken, 1857 -): German painter and caricaturist. Schlattmann studied in Düsseldorf under Alb. Baur, and in Berlin under F. Geselschap. [Bénézit: 1999, IX, 381]
Jacob van der Schley (Amsterdam, 1715 – Amsterdam, 1779): Engraver and designer. Schley was Bernard Picart’s disciple, whose style he imitates. He continued his master’s work after his death in 1733; these illustrations for “Don Quixote” are a perfect example. Schley engraved portraits and several illustrations, as those for Marivaux’ “Vie de Marianne” (1735 – 1747) and Bratôme’s works [Benezit IX, 386]
Eberhard Schlotter (Hildesheim, 1921 - ...): Eberhard Schlotter was born on June 3, 1921, in Hildesheim. His father, the sculptor Heinrich Schlotter, introduced Eberhard to art as a young child. Already as a student, Schlotter was considered a talented drawer and painter. In 1936, he audited classes at the Hildesheim Craft and Industrial School and learned the techniques of drypoint engraving and aquatint. Beginning in 1939, Schlotter attended the Academy of Visual Arts in Munich. The works which he presented at the Great German Art Exhibition in 1941 drew misgivings from the National Socialists. That fall Schlotter was sent to the Eastern front to fight on the vanguard. In 1944, he was severely wounded and, at the end of the war, he ended up as a prisoner of the Americans. After his release in August of 1945, Schlotter moved to Darmstadt to work as a freelance artist. At this time, he became familiar with modern painting, attending numerous exhibitions and reading art magazines. This is how he became acquainted with the works of Paul Cézanne, Matisse, Braque, and Pablo Picasso. In 1950, Schlotter received his first large commissions for facade works, such as mosaics and murals. In 1952, Schlotter took his first trip to Spain, which would later become his second home. From 1955 until 1957, the artist sat as chair of the New Darmstadt Secession. During this time, Schlotter met and befriended the writer Arno Schmidt, with whom he remained friends until his death. He even produced many portraits of his friend. In November of 1956, he and his wife moved to the fishing village of Altea, Spain. [http://www.art-directory.info/]
Georg Scholz (Wolfenbüttel, 1890 – Waldkirch, 1954): Painter, engraver and lithographer. Scholz had his artistic training at the Karlsruhe Academy, where his teachers included C. Ritter, Hans Thoma, L. Dill and Wilhelm Trübner. He later studied in Berlin under Lovis Corinth. After military service in World War I lasting from 1915 to 1918, he resumed painting, working in a style fusing cubist and futurist ideas. In 1919 Scholz became a member of the German Communist Party, and his work of the next few years is harshly critical of the social and economic order in postwar Germany. His Industrial Farmers of 1920 is an oil painting with collage that depicts a Bible-clutching farmer with money erupting from his forehead, seated next to his monstrous wife who cradles a piglet. Their subhuman son, his head open at the top to show that it is empty, is torturing a frog. Perhaps Scholz' best-known work, it is typical of the paintings he produced in the early 1920s, combining a very controlled, crisp execution with corrosive sarcasm. Scholz quickly became one of the leaders of the New Objectivity, a group of artists who practiced a cynical form of realism. The most famous among this group are Max Beckmann, George Grosz and Otto Dix, and Scholz' work briefly vied with theirs for ferocity of attack. By 1925, however, his approach had softened into something closer to neoclassicism, as seen in the Self-Portrait in front of an Advertising Column of 1926 and the Seated Nude with Plaster Bust of 1927. Appointed a professor at the Baden State Academy of Art in Karlsruhe in 1925, the students he taught included Rudolf Dischinger. Scholz began contributing in 1926 to the satirical magazine Simplicissimus, and in 1928 he visited Paris where he especially appreciated the work of Bonnard. With the rise to power of Hitler and the National Socialists in 1933, Scholz was quickly dismissed from his teaching position. Declared a Degenerate Artist, his works were among those seized in 1937 as part of a campaign by the Nazis to "purify" German culture, and he was forbidden to paint in 1939. In 1945, the French occupation forces appointed Scholz mayor of Waldkirch, but he died that same year [Benezit IX, 422]
Adolf Schrödter (Schewdt, 1805 – Carlsruhe, 1875) [AKA: Adolph Schroeder]: Genre painter, etcher, engraver, lithographer, illustrator and caricaturist. Schrödter was educated in Berlin at the Academy and in Dusseldorf under the painter Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow (1789 – 1862). In 1835 he was elected a Member of the Academy in Berlin. He became known as a painter of genre scenes, vignettes and various diverse illustrations, and his work is now held in major museums and cities around Europe, including those in Amsterdam (the Municipal Museum conserves the oil painting Don Quixote at his library), Berlin (Don Quixote reading in his armchair, 1834, at the Nationalgalerie), Cologne (Don Quixote), Dusseldorf (Don Quixote and his Dulcinea) and Frankfurt [Benezit IX, 443]
José Segrelles (Albaida, 1885 – Albaida, 1969): Painter and illustrator. Segrelles, who began his art studies at the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts of Valencia, can be considered as one of the most talented illustrators ever. His first great success were the illustrations for Las Florecillas de San Francisco (1927), where Segrelles shows to be a highly skilful watercolorist. After this triumph, Segrelles decided to travel to New York, exhibiting at the Roerich Museum. Consolidated his fame, the painter/illustrator returned to Spain and finally settled in his home town, Albaida, where, since 1943, he began the formation of the actual “Casa-Museo José Segrelles”. He illustrated works by Blasco Ibáñez (1918), Dante, Edgar Allan Poe, Cervantes and others; also The Thousand and One Nights and The Song of Songs. Some of his illustrations appeared in The Illustrated London News. Segrelles was awarded a golden medal in the International Exhibition of Barcelona (1929) and the Medalla de Oro al Mérito del Trabajo [Benezit IX, 505]
A. Seriñá (Spain, end of 19th century – beginning of 20th century): Painter and illustrator working in Barcelona around 1898.
Samuel Seymour (England, end of 18th century - 1823): Landscape painter and burin engraver. Samuel Seymour moved to Philadelphia in 1797, where he settled. He worked as a portrait engraver mainly [Benezit IX, 555]
Samuel Shelley (London, 1750 – London, 1808): Painter, engraver and miniaturist. He began his instruction copying Sir Joshua Reynols’ works. He exposed at the Society of Artists of London, the Royal Academy, the British Institution and the Old Water Colours Society; Shelley was a founding member of this last institution. Shelley had a notable reputation as a miniaturist [Benezit IX, 565]
Nicolas Charles de Silvestre (Versailles, 1699 – Valenton, 1767): Painter, designer and engraver. He was son and disciple of Charles-François de Silvestre (1667 – 1738), painter designer and burin engraver. He succeeded his father as design professor of the Infant of France and reached a prosperous economy situation. Silvestre got married with Jacques Philippe Le Bas’ daughter, Marguerite Le Bas. He engraved religious, History and genre scenes. In 1747, he became an academician with a landscape painting [Benezit IX, 604-605]
Jean Pierre Simon (Paris, 1769 - ¿?): Engraver and painter. Simon engraved History and genre scenes and illustrations, as those for La Fontaine’s “Fables” [Benezit IX, 612]
Robert Smirke (Wighton, 1752 – London, 1845): Genre and historical painter and illustrator. He was apprenticed in London with a heraldic painter; then, he began to study in the schools of the Royal Academy, to whose exhibitions he contributed in 1786. Between 1775 and 1834, he exposed at the Society of British Artists and at Suffolk Street too. In 1791, Smirke was elected an associate of the Royal Academy and, in 1793, a full member. In 1814, he was nominated keeper to the Academy, but the king refused to sanction the appointment on account of the artist's revolutionary opinions. He was engaged upon the Shakespeare gallery, for which he painted Katharina and Petruchio, Prince Henry and Falstaff and other subjects. He also executed many clever and popular book-illustrations inspired in the Bible, Shakespeare’s works, Cervantes’ Don Quixote, England History, The Thousand and one nights, etc. His works, which are frequently humorous, are pleasing and graceful, accomplished in draughtsmanship and handled with considerable spirit [Benezit IX, 656]
Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (Valencia, 1863 – Cercedillo, 1923): History, genre, landscape and seascape painter and portraitist. Joaquín Sorolla received his initial art education at the age of fourteen in Valencia and, then, under a succession of teachers including Cayetano Capuz and Salustiano Asenjo at San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts. At the age of eighteen he traveled to Madrid, vigorously studying master paintings in the Museo del Prado. In 1885 Sorolla obtained a grant which enabled a four year term to study painting in Rome, where he was welcomed by and found stability in the example of F. Pradilla, the director of the Spanish Academy in Rome. A long sojourn to Paris in 1885 provided his first exposure to modern painting; of special influence were exhibitions of Jules Bastien-Lepage and Adolf von Menzel. Back in Rome, he studied with José Benlliure, Emilio Sala and José Villegas. In 1888 Sorolla returned to Valencia and, in 1890, he settled in Madrid; there, and for the next decade, Sorolla's efforts as an artist were focused mainly on the production of large canvases of orientalist, mythological, historical and social subjects for display in salons and international exhibitions in Madrid, Paris, Venice, Munich, Berlin and Chicago, being widely awarded (1892, golden medal in Madrid; 1893, third medal in Paris; 1895, second medal in Paris; 1900, Gran Prix and a medal of honor at the Universal Exhibition of Paris; 1901, medal of honor in Madrid;...) and honored (member of the Academies of Fine Arts of Paris, Lisbon, Valencia...). A special exhibition of his works –figure subjects, landscapes and portraits– at the Galleries Georges Petit in Paris in 1906 eclipsed all his earlier successes and led to his appointment as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. The show included nearly 500 works, early paintings as well as recent sun-drenched beach scenes, landscapes and portraits, a productivity which amazed critics and was a financial triumph. Though, subsequent large-scale exhibitions in Germany and London were greeted with more restraint. In England in 1908 Sorolla met Archer Milton Huntington, who made him a member of The Hispanic Society of America in New York City and invited him to exhibit there in 1909. The exhibition was comprised of 356 paintings, 195 of which sold. Sorolla spent five months in America and painted more than twenty portraits. Huntington also commissioned Sorolla a series of oils on life in Spain. The canvases, to be installed in the Hispanic Society of America, would range from 12 to 14 feet in height, and total 227 feet in length. There would be fourteen large panels in all. The major commission of his career, it would dominate the later years of Sorolla's life [Benezit IX, 711; http://en.wikipedia.org]
Paul Constant Soyer (Paris, 1823 - Ecouen, 1903): Genre painter, wood engraver and acquafortist. He was son of Louise Charlotte Soyer, an engraver too, and a disciple of Cogniet. He was only 13 years old when engraved Johannot's designs for Don Quixote (Paris: Dubochet, 1836 - 1837). He also engraved Grandville's designs for another edition of Don Quixote (Paris: Tours Mame, 1848). In 1847, he debuted at the Salon, being awarded a medal in 1870 and a second class medal in 1882 [Benezit IX, 729]
Pierre Gustave Eugène Staal (Vertus, 1817 – Ivry, 1882): Pierre Gustave Eugène Staal (Vertus, 1817 – Ivry, 1882): Portraitist, designer, painter, burin engraver, lithographer and draughtsman. Staal entered the workshop of Paul Delaroche at the l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1838; then he learnt engraving with Adolphe Varin in 1845. He provided the artwork for several engraved works (Les Femmes de M. de Balzac, types, caractères et portraits, 1851; Chants et chansons by Pierre Dupont, 1851-59) for illustrated periodicals (Musée des familles, Magasin pittoresque), for novels (La Comédie humaine by Honoré de Balzac, 1842-1846; Œuvres illustrées de Balzac, 1851-1853; Les Mystères de Paris by Eugène Sue, 1843-1844; Corinne ou l'Italie by Mme de Staël, 1853) and books for children (Contes du docteur Sam by Henry Berthoud, 1862; Le Magasin des enfants by Mme Leprince de Beaumont, 1865; Les Contes de tous les pays by Emile Chasles, 1867). He also did drawings for Muses et Fées, histoire des femmes mythologiques by Joseph Méry and Count Foelix (1851) and for the volume of the Chants et chansons populaires de France (Garnier brothers editors, 1848) [Benezit IX, 763; http://en.wikipedia.org]
Janusz Stanny (Warsaw, 1932 - ?): Graphic artist. Janusz Stanny studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Warsaw. He worked as an art director for a publisher and also as an assistant in the Fine Arts Academy of Warsaw.
Stein (Germany, mid. 19th century): Illustrator and lithographer (?) working in Thorn (Germany) around mid. 19th century.
Stephenson (19th century): Stephenson and Royston were a well-known firm of illustrators and engravers in Manchester. Stephenson was a very good line-engraver and, amongst other works, he engraved the greater part of the illustrations in Charles Swain's The Mind, and other poems (Tilt & Bogue, 1841).
Thomas Stothard (London, 1755 – London, 1834): History and portrait painter and acquafortist. He was apprenticed to a draughtsman of patterns for brocaded silks, and during his spare time he attempted illustrations for the works of his favorite poets. In 1778, he became a student of the Royal Academy, of which he was elected associate in 1792 and full academician in 1794. In 1812 he was appointed librarian, having served as assistant for two years. He designed plates for pocket-books, tickets for concerts, illustrations to almanacs and portraits of popular actors. Among his more important series are the two sets of illustrations to Robinson Crusoe, one for the New Magazine and one for Stockdale's edition, and the plates to The Pilgrim's Progress (1788), to Harding's edition of Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield (1792), to The Rape of the Lock (1798), to the works of Solomon Gessner (1802), to William Cowper's Poems (1825), and to The Decameron; his figure-subjects in the superb editions of Samuel Rogers's Italy (1830) and Poems (1834) prove that even in old age his imagination was still fertile, and his hand firm. Stothard designed different sets of illustrations for Don Quixote [Benezit IX, 854 – 855]
William Strang (Dumbarton, 1859 - 1921): Scottish painter and engraver. W. Strang was born at Dumbarton, the son of Peter Strang, builder, and educated at the Dumbarton Academy. He worked for fifteen months in the counting-house of a firm of shipbuilders before going to London in 1875 when he was sixteen. There he studied art under Alphonse Legros at the Slade School for six years. Strang became assistant master in the etching class, and had great success as an etcher. He was one of the original members of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, and his work was a part of their first exhibition in 1881. Some of his early plates were published in The Portfolio and other art magazines. He worked in many manners, etching, dry point, mezzotint, sand-ground mezzotint, and burin engraving. Lithography and wood-cutting were also used by him to create pictures. He cut a large wood engraving of a man ploughing, later published by the Art for Schools Association. A privately produced catalog of his engraved work contained more than three hundred items. Among his earlier works were Tinkers, St. Jerome, A Woman Washing Her Feet, An Old Book-stall with a Man Lighting His Pipe from a Flare, and The Head of a Peasant Woman on sand-ground mezzotint. Later plates such as Hunger, The Bachelor's End and The Salvation Army were also important. Some of his best etchings were done as series—one of the earliest, illustrating poet William Nicholson's Ballad of Aken Drum, is remarkable for clear, delicate workmanship in the shadow tones, showing great skill and power over his materials, and for strong drawing. Another praised series was The Pilgrim's Progress, revealing austere sympathy with John Bunyan's teaching. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Ancient Mariner and Strang's own Allegory of Death and The Plowman's Wife, have served him with suitable imaginative subjects. Some of Rudyard Kipling's stories were also illustrated by him, and his likeness of Kipling was one of his most successful portrait plates. Other etched portraits included those of Ernest Sichel and of J.B. Clark, with whom Strang collaborated in illustrating Baron Munchausen (1895) and Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba (1896). Thomas Hardy, Sir Henry Newbolt and other distinguished men also sat for him. Proofs from these plates have been much valued; in fact, Strang's portrait etchings began a new form of reproductive portraiture. Strang produced a number of paintings, portraits, nude figures in landscapes, and groups of peasant families, which were exhibited at the Royal Academy, The International Society, and several German exhibitions. He painted a decorative series of scenes from the story of Adam and Eve for the library of a Wolverhampton landowner named Hodson; they were exhibited at the Whitechapel exhibition in 1910. Some of his nude model drawings in silver point and red and black chalk are very beautiful as well as powerful and true. He also painted landscapes, mostly small in size. In later years he developed a style of drawing in red and black chalk, with the whites and high lights rubbed out, on paper stained with water color. His method gives qualities of delicate modelling and refined form and gradations akin to the drawings of Hans Holbein the Younger. He drew portraits in this manner of many members of the Order of Merit for the royal library at Windsor Castle. In 1902 Strang retired from the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, as a protest against the inclusion in its exhibitions of etched or engraved reproductions of pictures. His work was subsequently seen principally in the exhibitions of the Royal Academy, the Society of Twelve and the International Society, to which he was elected in 1905. Strang was also elected an associate engraver of the Royal Academy when that degree was revived in 1906. William Strang was master of the Art Workers Guild in 1907. [http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/personExtended/mp04330/william-strang?tab=biography]
Atuyoshi Sugimura (20th century): Japanese painter and illustrator.
Edmund J. Sullivan (1869 - 1933): Well-known British illustrator of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As a youth Sullivan studied under his father, Michael, and received his first employment as an illustrator in 1889 from William Thomas for a new periodical, the Daily Graphic. He illustrated his first book, George Borrow's Lavengro, in 1896. Sullivan received three other commissions for books that same year, quickly establishing himself as an outstanding illustrator of the period especially adept at visualizing fantastic subject matter, such as H. G. Wells's "Stories of the Days to Come" in the Pall Mall Magazine, 1899. Sullivan lectured on book illustration and lithography at Goldsmith College and wrote two books on the subject, The Art of Illustration (Chapman and Hall, 1921) and Line (Chapman and Hall, 1922), which secured his lasting influence. One of his most-known works are the 79 illustrations for Sartor Resartus (1898), which made his reputation as one of the premier pen & ink artists of the day. [http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/sullivan.htm]
Louis Surugue père (Paris, c. 1686 – Grand Vaux près Savigny, 1762) [AKA: Louis de Surugue de Surgis]: Draughtsman, etcher, engraver, print-publisher and print-seller. He was brother of the sculptor Pierre Etienne Surugue and he trained with Bernard Picart, whom he followed to the Netherlands in 1710. He returned to France in 1715, to combine his work as a printmaker with publishing and selling prints. In 1730 he was approved by the Académie Royale and in 1735 he became an academician. He engraved portraits and genre scenes, and was sought after for his careful style and his firm and precise lines. He owned a considerable collection of prints. Between 1738 and 1761 he exposed several engravings at the Salon. His son Pierre-Louis de Surugue (1716 – 1772) was likewise an etcher and engraver, print-publisher and print-seller [Benezit X, 15]
More information at: www.grobeart.com
Pieter Tanjé (Bolsward, 1706 - Amsterdam, 1761) [AKA: Pierre Tanjé]: Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. Tanjé, Jakob Folkema's disciple, engraved portraits and history and genre scenes. He collaborated as engraver with the Gallery of Dresden. He engraved several plates for other Don Quixote (La Haye: Gosse, 1744). [Benezit X, 70]
Nicolas-François Octave Tassaert (Paris, 1800 – Paris, 1874): History and genre painter and lithographer. Tassaert, son of the engraver Jean Joseph François Tassaert (1765 – 1835) and disciple of Pierre Girard, began his art studies at the School of Fine Arts in 1817. He worked as an engraver since his childhood, but then, around 1817, he became a painter. Around 1831 he made his debut at the Salon and in 1849 he was awarded a first class medal [Benezit X, 81]
Ernest Louis Tavernier (Paris, 19th century): Engraver and acquafortist. Tavernier, Lemaître’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon in 1861 by the first time; he engraved “architectures” [Benezit X, 92]
Armand-Louis-Henri Telory (Henry Emy) (Paris, fl. 1840 – 1852): designer and lithographer. Telory, also known as Henry Emy, collaborated in many publications: Contes de Boccace, La grande ville, nouveau tableau de Paris, Les François peints par eux-mêmes, Paris l’Eté, Folies théâtrales, Choses du Jour and others [Benezit X, 106]
Harry George Theaker (1873 - 1954): British painter, watercolorist and illustrator. Theaker illustrated several children's books for Ward, Lock & Co.: Grimm's fairy tales, Charles Kingsley's The water babies, Children's stories from the Bible, Children's stories from the Classics, Stories of King Arthur, E. Charles Vivian's Robin Hood and his merry men, Gulliver's travels and The adventures of Don Quixote. He also illustrated The Arabian nights (1914).
John Thurston (Scarborough, 1774 – London, 1822): Watercolorist, illustrator and wood engraver. Thurston was specialized in copper plate and wood engraved illustrations to stories. He was known because of his illustrations for an edition of Shakespeare’s works (1814) [Benezit X, 173]
Jean-Paul, Pablo, Tillac (Angoulême, 1880-Bayonne, 1969): Painter, engraver, sculptor and illustrator. Jean Paul Tillac was born in (Charente) in 1880. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where his teachers included Gérôme, Jacquet, Cormon, and (for printmaking) Charles Waltner. After sojourns in New York, Cuba, Texas, and England, in 1911 Jean Paul Tillac settled in Cambo-les-Bains in the Basque country, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. Tillac was passionate about Basque and Spanish culture, adopting the name Pablo, and speaking both Basque and Spanish. Much of his work is in the Musée Basque in Bayonne.
Jacques Touchet (1887 – 1949): French designer and illustrator. Touchet, disciple of P. Renouard and L. Morin, was imprisoned between 1914 and 1918, time that he used to prepare several illustrations published during the following years. Some of the magazines and publications he worked for are Matin, l’Illustration, Annales, Frou-Frou and Fantasio; and among the books illustrated by him, Les Quinze Joies du Mariage, Swift’s Les Voyages du Gulliver, Henri de Régnier’s Rencontres de Monsieur de Breot, Voltaire’s Dictionnaire Philosophique, La Fontaine’s Fables and Contes, Théophile Gautier’s La Capitane Fracasse, Gabriel Chevallier’s Clochemerle, Dickens’ Les Papiers Posthumes du Pickwick-Club, Casanova’s Oeuvres, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, Brantôme’s Les Vies des Dames Galantes, Alphonse Daudet’s Tartarin de Tarascon, Erasmus’ Éloge de la Folie, Mardrus’ translation of Les Mille et Une Nuits, Pierre Louys’ Les Aventures du Roi Pausole, Rabelais’ Gargantua et Pantacruel, Cervantes’ Don Quichotte... [Benezit X, 243]
Line Touchet (France, 20th century): French illustrator active since 1940. Her father, Jacques Touchet, was an illustrator too.
Albino Tovagliari (Italy, 20th century): Italian illustrator. He illustrated several children's books for G. B. Paravia such as Sotto il manto rosso (1957), Le avventure di Pinocchio (1959), L'uomo invisibile (1961), or Sette piccoli australiani (1962). He also worked for the Società editrice internazionale: Storie quasi vere (1956), Til, il buffone (1957)...; and Ed. Ramella: Viaggi di Gulliver (1953).
Pierre-Charles Trémolières (Chotel, 1703 – Paris, 1739) [AKA: Pierre-Charles Tremollière; Pierre-Charles Trésmolier]: Genre and history painter, acquafortist and one of the most remarkable decorators in 18th century. After his father’s death, he was send to Paris, where he began to work with Carle van Loo. Successful painter, in 1723 he received a 3th class medal; in 1724, a 2º class one; and in 1725, a first class one. In 1726, he was pensioned to travel to Rome; since 1728, he lived in this city and worked for the Pope. Then, he lived in Lyon and again in Paris. His paintings are religious and mythological; some of his etchings copy Watteau’s designs [Benezit X, 266]
Josep Triadó i Mayol (Barcelona, 1870 - 1929): Painter, ex-libris designer, and illustrator. During the 90s of the 19th century he was devoted to painting creating works of symbolist character and lyrical and misty landscapes. Later, he would become characterized by its Catalan and marine paintings with popular types. He studied at the Llotja School, where he taught drawing from 1902. He learned engraving under Alexandre de Riquer, who also introduced him in the work of William Morris. Interested in everything related to the book arts, he participated in the various stages of the creation process, designing types, deluxe front covers, colophons, vignettes... He also drew posters, advertisements, trademarks, menus, letters, diplomas, etc., excelling in the exlibris design. There are also many notable art projects that he made for fabrics, ceramics, embroidery, jewelry, etc... He was the art director of the Revista gráfica, of the Catalan Institute of Book Arts, and of the the Anuario de las Artes Decorativas.
Johannes Troyer (1902 - 1969): Austrian graphic artist and book illustrator who drew a set of (mostly religious) ornaments for American Type Founders (ATF), which were cast in 1953. A digital version of this is Troyer AR (2010, AR Types). Richard Beatty also created a digital font called Troyer (1990). In 1961, he wrote The Cross as Symbol and Ornament. "JOHANNES TROYER came to this country a few years ago, having been born in South Tyrol, Austria. He has done many sculptures, murals, and stained glass windows in Austria, and worked as a calligrapher and illustrator for publishers both here and in Switzerland. He has illustrated the New Children's Classics edition of Grimm's HOUSEHOLD STORIES, and certainly no more fortunate choice of artist for these well-loved fairy tales could have been made. Over a period of years Mr. Troyer has been developing with sketches and lithographs his interpretation of Don Quixote and Sancho. And the result of his work, which appear in this book, are very exciting indeed. Surely the Troyer illustrations for Don Quixote are as classic as Don Quixote himself." (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1957, illustrator's biography in dust jacket).
Turner (Barcelona, 19th century): Designer working in Barcelona around 1858.
Tusell (working in Barcelona, ending of 19th century – beginning of 20th century): Illustrator. Tusell illustrated Don Quixote edition of Barcelona: Ramón de S. N. Araluce, 1913.
Vicente Urrabieta Ortiz (1823 – Paris, 1879): Designer and lithographer. Father of Daniel and Samuel Vierge, both painters and designers too. He collaborated with several Spanish illustrated publications. [Benezit X, 348]
Daniel Urrabieta Vierge (Madrid, 1851 – Boulogne-sur-Seine, 1904): Genre painter, designer, watercolorist and illustrator. Vierge, son of the illustrator Vicente Urrabieta Ortiz, studied at the Academy of Madrid since 1864 under Federico de Madrazo, Carlos de Haes, Eduardo Rosales and Vicente Palmaroli, and by the age of 16 he was already working for a leading local paper, Eusebio Blasco’s Madrid la nuit. In 1869 he moved to Paris to become a painter. This was thwarted by the Franco/Prussian War. Vierge made excellent use of this interruption to create drawings about all aspects of the conflict. He filled multiple notebooks with sketches from life, many of which would become the basis for illustrations that would appear in Le Monde Illustré, a leading Paris magazine. The 1870's were spent illustrating primarily for French magazines and books. After Le Monde Illustré came work on La Vie Moderne and L’Illustration. Then, among other books, he illustrated Michelet’s L’Histoire de France and L’Histoire de la Révolution, Charles Yriarte’s Histoire de Christophe Colomb and Bosnie et Herzégovine and a series of Victor Hugo titles in collaboration with other artists: L’année terrible (1874), Les Travailleurs de la mer, L’homme qui rit (1876), Quatre-vingt-treize (1877), Les Miserables and Notre-Dame de Paris (1882). His first great public success arrived in 1882 with the illustrations for Quevedo’s Historia de la vida del Buscón llamado don Pablos (Pablo de Segovia); the images were published by photogravure, a system developed by Gillot that allowed to reproduce the original drawings without an engraver. Thanks to these illustrations, Vierge was named Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur in France in 1889 and awarded the gold medal at the Paris Exhibition that same year. However, the edition was not complete since six months earlier Vierge had a stroke. His right side was paralyzed and he lost his speech and portions of his memory. Over a period of two years his mind returned as did movement in the right portion of his body, with the heart-rendering exception of his right hand and wrist. Undeterred, he learned how to draw and paint with his left. He illustrated Emile Bergerat’s L’Espagnole, completed the remaining 20 illustrations for the Pablo de Segovia (the complete edition being published in 1892), La Nonne Alfarez (1894), The Tavern of the Three Virtues (1895) and the 260 illustrations for Cervantes’ Don Quixote. It took him ten years to create the images and the effort was foretold in the 1896 title On the Trail of Don Quixote by August Jaccaci, a lifelong friend of Vierge. Together they retraced the journeys of the fictional character through the Spanish countrysides. These were not the only illustrations by Vierge about Don Quixote; in 1875, Molinier began to publish Cervante’s novel serialized with Vierge’s illustrations, but the work remained incomplete (only 12 illustrations are known) [http://www.bpib.com; Ashbee 270; Benezit X, 498-499; Blas, Javier et alii, Daniel Urrabieta Vierge (1851 / 1904) Creador de imágenes, ilustrador gráfico. Madrid: 2005]
Thomas Uwins (Pentoville, 1782 – Staines, 1857): Watercolorist and oil painter. Uwins, who began his apprenticeship as an engraver, studied at the schools of the Royal Academy in London. His first works were illustrations and frontispieces for several publications. In 1809 he became an associate of the Water Colour Society and, in 1810, a titular member. Between 1824 and 1831, Uwins traveled through Italy and, after returning to England, he left the watercolor to become an oil painter. In 1833 he was accepted as an associate of the Royal Academy; in 1838, an academician; in 1844, librarian of the same institution; in 1845, he was appointed Inspector of paintings; and, in 1847, curator of the National Academy [Benezit X, 356]
Domingo Valdivieso Henarejos (Mazarrón, 1830 - Madrid, 1872): Spanish painter and lithographer. He was first a pupil of Juan Albacete, and then studied successively in the Schools of Art at Madrid, in Paris, and in Rome. After his return he became anatomical teacher to the Royal Academy of San Fernando. He painted portraits, genre subjects, and historical pictures ; among the latter are: an Entombment of Christ, The First Communion, and Philip II on the occasion of an Auto de Fe.
José Vallejo y Gabazo (Málaga, 1821 – Madrid, 1882): Genre painter, lithographer, acquafortist and illustrator. José Vallejo was a disciple of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. He also worked painting ceilings for theaters and the Royal Palace. He painted an Allegory of don Quijote [Benezit X, 380]
John Vanderbank (1694 – 1739): Portrait and history painter. Vanderbank received his training as a portraitist under sin Godfrey Kneller before becoming a successful artist. In 1720, with Louis Cheron, Vanderbank founded Saint Martin’s Lane Academy (re-establish by Hogarth in 1735). Noted primarily for his portraiture, he also worked as a book illustrator and produced numerous small oil versions of scenes from “Don Quixote”. In his commentary about the illustrations for London: Tonson, 1738, Río y Rico considers that “las láminas demuestran que Vanderbank era un excelente dibujante” (RR30). And Givanel classifies this edition as “la mejor aparecida hasta entonces en el mundo, ilustrada con sesenta y siete láminas de Vanderbank” with “ambiente severo, viril, íntimamente religioso, de sobria elegancia” [GG122-124]
Emile Jean Horace Vernet (Paris, 1789 – Paris, 1863): Painter of History, battles panoramas, sporting, Orientalist Arab themes and lithographer. Vernet quickly developed a disdain of Renaissance Classicism, and decided to create his "own" art form. Therefore, he began depicting the French soldier in realism, rather than in an idealized fashion. Some of his paintings regarding the real French soldier include Dog of the Regiment, Trumpeter's Horse, and Death of Poniatowski. In 1819, Vernet began depicting immense, large-scale battle scenes. Although his works were painted with good speed, they were considered to be some of the best pictures of art regarding battle scenes. Also, rather than capturing certain episodes of battles, Vernet chose entire campaigns, such as the Battle of Italy and the capture of Rome. Also, some of his more well-known pieces included those from the French Revolution, and arguably his most famous work of art was the Battle of the Bridge of Arcole, which he painted in 1826. That piece depicted young Napoleon leading his troops across a bridge with a tattered flag. The actual battle, Battle of the Bridge of Arcole (Le Bataille du Pont d'Arcole), occurred in 1796. Vernet depicted many other battles of the Napoleonic Wars, including the Battle of Jena. Also, he accompanied the French Army during the Crimean War, producing several important paintings, including one of the Battle of the Alma. In addition, his depictions of Algerian battles, such as the French occupation of the Pass of Mouzaia, were well-received, as they were natural depictions of the French army at hand. In fact, when Emperor Louis Napoleon asked Vernet to remove a certain obnoxious general from one of his paintings, he replied, "I am a painter of history, sire, and I will not violate the truth". Since 1835 he was the director of the Ecole de France in Rome [Benezit X, 467 – 468]
George Vertue (London, 1684 – London, 1756): Designer, acquafortist, burin and dry point engraver (Michel van der Gucht’s disciple) and collector. Well-known English engraver, since 1709 he worked by himself for several booksellers. He engraved designs by Kneller, Dahl, Richardson, Jervas and Gibson. In 1711, he was accepted into the Academy of Painting, whose director was sir Godfrey Kneller. His reputation as painter increased thanks to a portrait of the King. In 1717, he was appointed engraver of the Society of Archeology of London; also worked for the University of Oxford. He prepared a never published Art History of England; after his death, Horace Walpole (1717 – 1797) collected his notes and used them for his own work Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762). George Vertue was buried in Westminster Abbey cloister [Benezit X, 479-480]
José Villegas Cordero (Sevilla, 1844 – Madrid, 1921): History and genre painter. Villegas Cordero studied painting under Eduardo Cano in Sevilla; then, he completed his studies in Madrid at the atelier of Federico Madrazo and copying Velázquez’ paintings at the Prado Museum. In 1869, Villegas decided to travel to Rome accompanied by Rafael Peralta and Luis Jiménez Aranda; there, he achieved to be admitted by Rosales at his atelier. After some short travels to Spain and Morocco, Villegas returned to Italy and settled both in Rome and Venice. In 1898 he was appointed Director of the Spanish Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, position that he held until 1901, when he returned to Madrid after having been appointed director of the Prado Museum. Villegas did not only illustrated Don Quixote, but also a Magna Biblia in collaboration with other famous European painters; Villegas illustrated Isaiah’s prophecies [Benezit, X, 514]
Adolf Wald (ending of 19th century – beginning of 20th century): German illustrator, painter and watercolorist. Wald’s illustrations for Don Quixote first appeared in the edition of Stuttgart: K. Thienemanns Verlag, c. 1896. He also illustrated Fritz Holten’s Das Aeromobil (1920), with 25 illustrations of great originality, and some of Balduin Möllhausen’s novels.
Samuel Wale (London, 1721 – London, 1786): History painter, illustrator, decorator and designer. First instructed with a silversmith, Wale continued his learning at Saint Martin’s Lane Academy as Francis Hayman’s disciple. Wale followed Hayman’s style. He worked principally as an illustrator and as a designer (he collaborated in the designs for Saint Paul). Wale was a founding member of the Royal Academy and also its first pensioner. Between 1760 and 1778 he exhibited at the Society of Artist and at the Royal Academy [Benezit X, 610]
Emery Walker (London, 1851 - 1933): English printer and photoengraver. When Emery Walker was just 12 he bought a 17th century book from a rag and bone man in Hammersmith, starting a lifelong passion for books and printing. But only a year later, Walker had to leave school to earn money to support his family because his father lost his sight. He started off in a linen drapers, but soon went to work at the recently started Typographic Etching Company, and worked with books for the rest of his life. He quickly taught himself the history of printing and learnt the processes of printing. In 1877 he married Mary Grace Dunthorne, and in 1879 he moved to Hammersmith. His only child, Dorothy, was born in 1878. In 1883 Walker set up in business with his brother-in-law Robert. Two years later he founded with his friend Walter Boutall the firm of Walker and Boutall, Automatic and Photographic Engravers. The firm developed a highly influential technique of process engraving for illustrating books with photographs and artworks. The company was considered the best in the business. The street on which Walker lived happened to be the same street where the poet, designer and social reformer William Morris was renting a house. At first, the two didn’t meet, but the Morris family observed Walker and his family, calling him the ‘brown velveteen artist’ who sometimes flitted by ‘leading by the hand a pretty little maid in white muslin.’ Morris also spotted Walker on the train reading one of Morris’s own works, the Earthly Paradise, but they didn't speak. Emery Walker finally met William Morris through the Socialist Movement. Their shared passions for books, architecture and design cemented a close friendship. It was Walker who introduced Morris to the possibilities of designing type and printing books. His technical expertise was crucial to the success of the Kelmscott Press founded by Morris in 1890. Walker became friends with many of the members of the Arts and Crafts Movement, but his greatest influence was on the people who took forward the Private Press Movement. He was a technical adviser to the St. John Hornby’s Ashendene Press, and helped many aspiring printers, as his wide correspondence shows. Many of the private press books in the library are personal gifts from the people who ran the presses. But it wasn't until 1900 that he set up his own press, the Doves Press, with a friend, the bookbinder and fellow member of the Morris circle, T J Cobden-Sanderson. The two men were very different in temperament. Walker’s humility and down-to-earth approach was a contrast to Cobden-Sanderson’s visionary, irrational nature. The partnership lasted only eight years, but produced a series of very fine and austerely decorated books. Walker spent time in the Cotswolds. He was a good friend of the Arts and Crafts designer Ernest Gimson, and stayed several times with his friend in Sapperton, near Cirencester, Gloucestershire. In 1922, after Gimson's death, he rented Gimson's old showroom, Daneway House near Sapperton. The artistic community in the area was strong thanks to Gimson and his friends Ernest and Sidney Barnsley, but Walker developed a creative circle of visitors including Rudyard Kipling, T E Lawrence, and the Sitwells. The American printer Bruce Rogers was a visitor, as was Walker’s good friend the bookbinder Katherine Adams who bound many of the books in the collection. Walker was knighted in 1930, and received many honors for his services to both Private Press printing and the printing industry. [http://www.artsandcraftsmuseum.org.uk/Arts_and_Crafts_Movement/Emery_Walker_Library/Emery_Walker.aspx]
Walter & Boutall (19th century): The firm of Walter & Boutall was a partnership between Sir Emery Walker & Walter Boutall. The company had a studio on Fleet Street in the City of London from 1887 until 1900. The partnership was dissolved in 1900 and was succeeded by Walter & Cockerell.
Henry Warren (1794 - 1879): Warren was a painter of oriental and biblical subjects, and was also an illustrator of literary and landscape subjects. He entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1818. He specialised in large and elaborate watercolours, often with literary and Biblical themes.
Jan Waterschoot (Belgium, 1892 - 1968): Jan Waterschoot was one of the best Flemish realistic illustrators. His graphic style was inspired by French pre-War illustrators, and he did illustration work for many magazines, such as Zonneland and Haardvriend. He made his comics debut with 'De Reis Van Twee Antwerpse Kleuters', that appeared in Zonneland in 1937. This was followed by 'De Man die Nooit Meer Moe Werd', 'De Gezusters Willekens en de Zwarte Kat' and '4 Jongens Doen de Ronde van België' and 'Johnny, de Weesjongen', stories that appeared in the late 1930s. After the War, Waterschoot's work appears in the French Franc-Jeu, where he did among others 'Un Drame Chez les Indiens'. He returned to the Flemish comics scene when he began a collaboration with Kleine Zondagsvriend in 1948. There, he created among others 'Het Brigandje' (under the pseudonym Jif), 'Robrecht de Fries' and 'Een Vlaamse Reus in 't Rotsgebergte'. In the 1950s, he is present in Tam-Tam with 'De Grote Zwartrok' with text by J. van Overstraeten. At the publishing house L. Opdebeek in Antwerpen, he drew 5 albums in the series 'Meesterwerken in Beeld', In this collection, he did comic adaptations of 'Jan Zonder Vrees', 'Gullivers Reizen', 'Don Quichotte', 'De 3 Musketiers' and 'De Negerhut van Oom Tom'. He took on various religious comics for Ons Kerkklokje (Kerkelijk Leven), such as 'Willem van Saeftinge, de Strijdende Monnik' (1953), 'Pius XII, Apostel van de Vrede' (1958). He also did 'Rubens, Kunstenaar en Diplomaat' and 'De Pimpelteentjes op Apenjacht' in the magazine. In MK-Het Weekblad, Waterschoot illustrated comics biographies of among others 'Quiten Metsijs, de Smid van Antwerpen' (1962-63, using the pseudonym Jan Wouters) and 'Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Prins der Vlaamse Schilders'. Apart from comics, Waterschoot also did a lot of illustration work, for instance on the children's book Oost-West Thuis Best by Flora Engels, which featured a girl mouse with the somewhat familiar name of Mieke Muis... [http://www.lambiek.net/artists/w/waterschoot.htm]
Janina Wegrzynowska (Poland, 20th century): Graphic artist. Janina Wegrzynowska studied plastic arts at the Fine Arts Academy of Warsaw. She worked as a restorer and she also collaborated with several publishers and magazines.
Richard Westall (Hertford, 1765 – London, 1836): History, landscape and genre painter, book illustrator and burin engraver. He was apprenticed to a heraldic silver engraver in London in 1779 before studying at the Royal Academy School of Art from 1785. He exhibited at the Academy regularly between 1784 and 1836, became an Associate in 1792 and was elected an Academician in 1794. His works –many in water-color– include portraits (including Queen Victoria, Lord Byron and Richard Ayton), many elegant and historical subjects of a neo-classical nature and book illustrations, more interested in being imaginative than accurate (including an edition of the Bible and of John Milton’s Poems). He worked for the noted publisher John Boydell. He also served as drawing master to Princess, later Queen Victoria since 1827 till his death [Benezit X, 705).]
Rowland Wheelwright (Queensland, Australia, 1870 - 1955): Painter of historical and classical subjects. Wheelwright came to England and was educated at Tonbridge. Studied art at Herkomer's School at Bushey. Exhibited at the Royal Academy and Paris Salon. Principal works include Joan of Arc Taken Prisoner, The Caravan, Enid and Geraint and Don Quixote.
Jan Wiegman (Zwolle, 1884 - Heemstede, 1963): Dutch illustrator and cartoon designer. He was apprenticed to Tjeerd Bottema, a famous Dutch illustrator. Jan Wiegman illustrated many children's books and was well known for his "blacks" (silhouette drawings). Two of his brothers, Piet and Matthieu Wiegman, were well known Dutch painters; members of the so called "Bergensche School". Jan Wiegman was introduced to Meulenhoff Publishers by an other famous Dutch painter and illustrator, Jan Sluijters, and he eventually worked for over sixty publishers. His work is often characterized as "routine", but we must bear in mind that he had to make a living with it. He also illustrated a number of commercial books.
Janusz Wiktorowski (Poland, 1939 - ?): Illustrator, painter and designer. Janusz Wiktorowski studied plastic arts in Lodz. He worked designing posters and he also collaborated with several magazines as a satiric illustrator. He was awarded for his poster designs in 1963 (Second Prize in Warsaw and First Prize in Lodz) and in 1964 (First Prize in Helsinki).
Josef Wilkon (Poland, 1930 - ?): Painter, graphic artist and illustrator. Josef Wilkon studied Plastic Arts and Art History. He exhibited in Warsaw (1959), Cracow (1960) and Vienna (1964) and took part in exhibits in Nancy (1960), Leipzig (1965), London, Moscow, Berlin... He was awarded a Golden Medal in Leipzig (1959).
Mary Ann Williams (first half of 19th century): English wood engraver and genre painter. She was sister and collaborator of her brothers, Samuel and Thomas Williams [Benezit X, 742]
Jules Worms (Paris, 1832 – 1924): Genre painter, illustrator and etcher. Worms began his art studies as a disciple of Lafosse; then, in 1849, he was admitted at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1859 he made his debut at the Salon, achieving a great success with his Spanish scenes (gypsies, bull fighters, inns...). He was widely awarded; with medals in 1867, 1868 and 1869; in 1876 as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur; in 1878 (during the Universal Exposition) with a third class medal; and in 1889 (during the Universal Exposition too) with a new medal [Benezit X, 795]
John Massey Wright (London, 1777 - London, 1866): Genre and landscape painter, watercolorist, designer, and illustrator. John Massey's father was an organ builder and Wright began as an apprentice in that trade but was fired for drawing sketches on the organ pipes. After some time working as a piano tuner, Wright became a watercolor artist. Many of his paintings were inspired by the writings of William Shakespeare and Oliver Goldsmith; he is also known for the life-size panoramic scenes of the Napoleonic Wars that he painted for Thomas and Henry Aston Barker. Wright found moderate success during his lifetime, painting panoramas, portraits, and illustrations for the literary works of Robert Burns, Oliver Goldsmith, Sir Walter Scott, and William Shakespeare. He displayed nine of his paintings at the Royal Academy between 1812 and 1818, and in 1824 he was elected to the Society of Painters in Water Colours. Despite his success as an artist, Wright struggled financially and had to continue working until his death. [Bénézit: 1999, XIV, 729]
Max Wulff (Berlin, 1871 - ?): German illustrator.
Rafael Ximeno (Valencia, 1759 – Mexico, after 1802) [AKA: Rafael Gimeno]: Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia), of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) and of the Academy at Rome. He became a professor of the Academy at Valencia and director of the Academy of Mexico. Between his works, the portraits of “Meng” and “Marquesa de los Llanos”, several religious paintings, frescos and the “Assumption” for the cathedral of Mexico [Benezit V, 7]
Mariano Zaragüeta (Pamplona, 20th century): Spanish illustrator active in the 50s.
Eusebio Zarza (19th century): Spanish painter and engraver. Zarza was a disciple of the San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. Between 1856 and 1881 he exhibited paintings with religious subjects and wooden sculptures. Zarza signed a xylograph with a “real” portrait of Cervantes after a painting attributed to Francisco Pacheco; it was published in El Museo Universal (nº 16, April 18, 1868) [Benezit X, 874; Ashbee 393]
John Christian Zeitter (? – London, 1862) [AKA: Johann Christian Zeitter]: Genre painter and engraver. Between 1824 and 1862 he exposed at London. He was known because of his Polish and Hungarian genre scenes, as The Hungarian tinkers wedding. He was a member of the Society of British Artists (1841) [Benezit X, 880]
A. Zetto (20th century): Italian illustrator working around 1929.
Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines lexikon der bildenden kunstler von der antike bis zur gegenwart; unter mitwirkung von 300 fachgelehrten des in- und auslandes hrsg, Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1907-50, 37 vols.
Emmanuel Benezit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays, par un groupe d'ecrivains specialistes francais et etrangers, Paris, Librairie Grund, 1976, 10 vols.