Don Quixote Engravers' Biographies

Abadal (): The Abadal family began to print and engraved in Mataró (Barcelona) in 1779. 600 xylographies have been catalogued. (Costa i Oller, France: L’art del Abadal: Impressors i xilògrafs de Mataró del segles XVIII i XIX. Barcelona. Barcelona: Patronat Municipal de Culturà de Mataró, 1994).

E. Alba (working in Madrid, 19th century): Wood engraver. Alba engraved one of the illustrations for the Don Quixote edition of Madrid: Biblioteca Universal Ilustrada, 1875 (and 1877).

Manuel Albuerne (1764 – 1815): Burin engraver. Albuerne was a disciple of Manuel Salvador Carmona at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. Among his best-known works are the portraits of Murillo, Fernando VII and the Infant Isabel. [Benezit: 1999, I, 168]

Francisco Alcántara (1764 - ¿?): Painter and illustration designer. He follows Luis Paret y Alcázar’s style, creating images of great elegance and charming. He worked in Madrid. [Benezit I, 94; Lenaghan 247 – 256]

Alexandre Alexeïeff (Kazan, Russia, 1901 – Paris, 1982): Russian Empire-born artist, filmmaker and illustrator who lived and worked mainly in Paris. He and his second wife Claire Parker (1906–1981) are credited with inventing the pinscreen as well as the animation technique totalization. In all Alexeïeff produced 6 films on the pinscreen, 41 advertising films and illustrated 41 books.

Henry Alken (1785 – 1851): English painter, engraver and acquafortist. Son of artist Samuel Alken, he was specialized in hunting and sporting scenes. In 1801 and 1822 he exposed two portraits at the Royal Academy of London. Alken explores the comic side of riding in a series of prints depicting the follies and foibles of aristocrats on their weekend outings. He worked in London and the provinces and was prolific in a variety of media, including painting, etching and watercolor. Trained as a miniature painter, his works always had a graphic precision. He was employed by sporting periodicals as an illustrator and provided plates for the “National Sports of Great Britain” (London, 1821) [Benezit I, 116]

M. Álvarez (End of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): Engraver working in Madrid around 1804.

Blas Ametller (Barcelona, 1768 – Madrid, 1841): Designer and burin engraver. Ametller was an assistant professor at the Escuela de Artes (Barcelona, 1787) and received a scholarship from the Junta de Comercio to study engraving in Madrid (1790–95) under Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1793, the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) awarded him a first prize for engraving the portrait of Ventura Rodríguez after Goya’s painting and, in 1797, he was made an academician. He produced book illustrations, religious engravings and reproductions of paintings. He engraved the portraits of Goya, Murillo, Ribera and Velázquez. His success led to his appointment as Grabador de Cámara in 1815, in which position he executed a portrait of Ferdinand VII (1821) after Vicente López y Portaña’s drawings. After Salvador Carmona’s death in 1820, Ametller was made Director de Grabado al buril at the Royal Academy, a post he held until his death. He engraved plates for several Don Quixote editions (Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 – 1798; Madrid: Sancha, 1798 – 1799; Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1819) [Benezit I, 156]
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Amills (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver. Amills engraved Cervantes’s portrait for Don Quixote edition of Barcelona: Viuda e hijos de Gorchs, 1832.

Samuel Anderson (?, 1773 – Stockholm, 1857): Burin engraver. Anderson worked as an engraver of illustrations mainly, but he also made some portraits and views too. He also worked engraving and founding types and characters for the National Bank of Sweden [Benezit I, 170]

Andrew, Best & Leloir (19th century): This signature refers to three different wood engravers who were associated in the first half of 19th century. The three of them engraved for Le Magassin Pittoresque , Le Musée des Familles, L’Illustration and L’Histoire de l’Ancien et de Noveau Testament. Adolphe Best was also associated with Hostin and Régnier. Andrew was a disciple of Charles Thompson (London, 1791 – Bourg-la-Reine, 1843). And Leloir engraved some plates for Beaux Arts, published by Curmer [Benezit I, 185 and 715; VI, 558]

William Angus (1752 - 1821): Engraver and landscape designer. He was disciple of the engraver William Walker (Thirsk, 1729 – London, 1793). William Angus engraved many illustrations of mansion-houses in England and Wales; he also took part in several topographical publications and engraved some plates for The Dramatic Works of Shakespeare and some portraits for European Magazine. Some of his engravings are after his own designs; others after Stothard’s, Paul Sandby’s, Edward Daynes’ and George Samuel’s. His style is delicate and pleasant. [Benezit I, 201]

Cosmo Armstrong (19th century): English engraver. Armstrong was a disciple of Thomas Milton. He was the president of the Society of Engravers and engraved plates for Kearsley’s Shakespeare (1805), for Cooke’s edition of English Poets, Smirke’s illustrations for Don Quixote and The Arabian Nights and several portraits of notable men (Shakespeare, Byron...) [Benezit I, 266]

Artigas (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1876 – 1880.

Ateliers of Georges Leblanc and Manuel Robbe (Paris, 20th century): Manuel Robbe (Paris, 1872 - 1936): French painter and engraver. Manuel Robbe studied etching and painting and became an accomplished engraver, specializing in aquatint. One of the most significant print publishers of the time, Edmond Sagot, was an admirer of Robbe, and regularly published color prints by him. Between the turn of the 20th century and 1914, Robbe produced a large number of aquatints in black and in color. He was awarded a Gold Medal at the Universal Exhibition for his prints in 1900. In 1905, he traded his allegiance from the Societe des Artistes Français to the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, where he was henceforth to exhibit. Robbe executed his strongest work in the decades immediately before and following 1900. Under the guidance of renowned printer Eugène Delâtre, he mastered the techniques of etching and aquatint and soon became a leading artist of publisher Edmond Sagot. Robbe developed a technique known as “sugar-life”, printing his designs with a mixture of sugar, ink and gum Arabic on zinc plates. He would then heat the plate and work with the soft-ground etching process until he achieved the desired effect. Robbe would then paint the subject on the plate with an oil paint brush made of rags. He used his fingers to adjust the tone on the zinc plate, resulting in the appearance of a completely unique print. Robbe was an innovator of the experimental “à la poupée” process of printing many colors from a single plate. During his career, Robbe produced more than 200 aquatints and drypoints, as well as posters promoting corsets and bicycles. The admiration of his work earned him numerous invitations to exhibitions. He received the Bronze Medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.

L. Aubert père (ending of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): French burin engraver and calligrapher. Aubert père engraved the calendrier of 1814 [Benezit I, 309]

Philip Audinet (London, Soho, 1766 – London, 1837) [AKA: Philipp Audinet]: Line-engraver. Audinet was descended from a French family which came over to England in consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. After having served his apprenticeship to John Hall, Audinet was employed to engrave the portraits for Harrison's Biographical Magazine and other works. He also engraved Lear with the dead body of Cordelia, after Fuseli, for Bell's British Theatre, and several portraits after pictures by Danloux, a French painter who resided in England during the time of the revolution in France. Among his later works are portraits of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, 1st Baronet, and Sir William Domville, Bart., lord mayor of London, after William Owen, and an excellent engraving of Barry's unfinished portrait of Dr. Johnson, as well as the illustrations designed by Samuel Wale for the edition of Walton's Angler published in 1808. There is one plate in mezzotint by him, a portrait of his brother, S. Audinet, a watchmaker. [Benezit: I, 315]

François-Antoine Aveline (Paris, 1718 - London, 1780): Burin engraver and designer. He studied engraving under his father, Antoine Aveline, after whose death his set in London. There, he did not get any success, so he decided to return to Paris. [Bénézit (1999): I, 565]

Badoureau (working in Paris c. 1846): Wood engraver.

Joaquín Ballester (1741 – 1795): Burin engraver and portraitist. In 1778, he became director of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia). He was a remarkable portraitist. He engraved The dead Christ supported by an angel after Alonso Cano and some designs after Murillo [Benezit I, 407]

Barbant (19th century): Wood engraver. Barbant worked in Paris between 1840 and 1866 [Benezit I, 426]

Juan Barcelón (Lorca, 1739 – Madrid, 1801): Burin engraver and painter. He studied drawing at Murcia with the sculptor Salcillo. In 1759, Barcelón moved to Madrid, where he won a third class prize of painting at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). In 1762, he got a pension to study burin engraving with Juan Bernabé Palomino (1692 – 1777; Palomino’s son, Juan Fernando Palomino, also took part in Madrid: Ibarra, 1780). In collaboration with Nicolas Bassanti, Barcelón engraved 24 plates after Luca Giordano. He also engraved the portrait of Juan de Torquemada after José Maea. In 1777, he received the grade of Academician of Merit [Benezit I, 437]

Bernard Baron (Paris, 1696 – London, 1762 or 1766): Acquafortist and burin engraver. Bernard Baron, Nicolas Tardie’s disciple, stood out as engraver for the printer Boydell in London. He worked in this city until this death [Benezit 1976, I, 455]

Bastin (19th century): English wood engraver. He engraved one plate for L. Sterne's A Sentimental Journey (1840) [Benezit I, 503]

M. N. Bate (London, 19th century): Engraver and portraitist working in London. He exhibited at the Royal Academy of London in 1821. [Benezit: I, 505]

Alexandre-Nicolas Belhatte (Paris, 1811 - ?): Designer and engraver. Belhatte worked in Paris [Benezit I, 587]

Beneworth (first half of 19th century): Wood engraver. Beneworth studied in Paris, London and Brussels. Finally, he settled in Leipzig [Benezit I, 623]

M. A. Benoist (end of the 18th century – beginning of the 18th century): Engraver. M. A. Benoist worked in Paris as an engraver specialized in landscapes. By the same time, there was another engraver who signed as J. L. Benoist [Benezit I, 629 - 630]

Daniel Berger (Berlin, 1744 - ?, 1824): Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. He was son and disciple of the engraver Fried-Gott. Berger. Berger was instructed in design by La Sueur at the Academy of Berlin and, when he was 20 years old, he entered G.-F. Schmidt’s atelier. Between 1786 and 1797, he exposed at the Academy of Berlin and, in 1778, he became a member of the Academy and, then, a professor [Benezit I, 652]

E. Bernard (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. He worked for Journal des Journaux, Le Foyer Breton, Le Mont-de-Piété, L’Histoire de Napoléon and L’Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie [Benezit I, 667]

Auguste Henri Berthoud (Paris or Neuchâtel, 1829 - Neuchâtel, 1887): Landscape painter and engraver. Berthoud was a pupil of the Art school of Paris in the studio of Ary Scheffer (1795-1858) and Eugène Lepoittevin (1806-1870); his principal Master was Corot, whose close friend he was. In 1852 he settled in Lausanne.

Antoine-Valérie Bertrand (Paris, 1823 - ?): Wood engraver. Bertrand, Brown and Harrisson’s disciple, exhibited in Paris between 1864 and 1879 regularly; in 1874 at the Salon. He worked for Le Magasin Pittoresque and Le Tour de Monde and he also engraved Doré’s designs for La Fontaine’s Fables and Dante’s Divine Comedy [Benezit I, 702]

Jean-Baptiste Bigant (French, 18-19th century): French copper engraver.

O. Birrel (last decades 18th century): Engraver. O. Birrel worked in London during the last decades of the 18th century [Benezit II, 47]

Dmitry Bisti (Sevastopol, 1925 - 1990): Dmitry Spiridonovich Bisti was born in 1925 in Sevastopol. He graduated from the Moscow Polygraphic Institute in 1952. The creative manner of the artist and his understanding of the role of a book designer emerged already in the first books illustrated by him, Lust for Life by I. Stone, Novels by P. Merimee, Verses and Poems by E. Bagritsky were published in early 1960-s. The critic Mikhail Lazarev said: "Bisti’s compositions fit in the space of the entire book, not just the machine-sheet. They don’t illustrate certain plots, but structurally and graphically interpret the literary source in general. Each illustration finds its exact place in the text in accordance with the development of the plot. He creates the fonts, builds the layout and designs all the elements of the book". Mastering drawing, wood engraving and etching, the artist has illustrated numerous works of ancient and medieval literature, Russian and foreign classics, books for children. Among them Akutagawa’s novels, Virgil's Aeneid, The Song of Roland and The Lay of the Cid, Woe from Wit by Griboedov, A Journey Beyond the Three Seas by Afanasij Nikitin, The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, etc. They have become classics of the national book graphics. Tragic or ironic, Bisti’s illustrations are always temperamental, highly expressive and emotional. These features are most characteristic to the design of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, Apuleius’s Metamorphoses, Odoevsky’s stories. A significant part of Bisti’s work is devoted to book design, working with fonts, layout design, design of cover pages, binders and jackets. In the middle 1970-s Bisti headed the typography of 200 volume series "Library of World Literature". He was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1978 and received the title of People's Artist of Russia in 1984. In 1988 he became a vice-president of the Academy of Fine Arts. The works of this remarkable artist are owned by the Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow, Russia), Russian Museum (St.Petersburg, Russia) and by numerous private collectors in Russia and abroad. Dmitry Bisti’s illustrations to Kotlyarevsky’s Eneyida are published in Vita Nova publishing house for the first time. []

Prudent Bizot (17th and 18th centuries): Burin engraver. Bizot worked in Lyon by the beginning of the 18th century [Benezit II, 58]

William Blake (London, 1757 – London, 1827): Painter, engraver and poet. At the age of ten, with the support of his family, Blake enrolled in a drawing school run by Henry Pars, and at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to James Basire, engraver to the Society of Antiquaries and the Royal Society. Although it is likely that he did a fair amount of engraving, as an apprentice he was not encouraged to develop his own individual style, and it is hard for scholars to discern the work that he did. After seven years Blake completed his apprenticeship and entered the Royal Academy, but the education was not to his liking. Joshua Reynolds, the Academy's first president, told him to work with "less extravagance and more simplicity". At the Academy, he met Barry, Fuseli, Mortimer, Flaxman and Stothard (Benezit II, 63). Blake earned his keep as a journeyman copy engraver. He worked on publishing projects, books, and prints such as stipple engravings of paintings by the French Rococo painter Jean-Antoine Watteau. He engraved plates for Cervantes's Don Quixote (in 1782, being 25 years old), Sterne's Sentimental Journey, and for Wedgwood catalog advertising.
More information at: (Accessed September 26, 2006)

John Blake († 1787): Engraver and designer. Wiliam Blake’s brother. John Blake engraved plates for Hesiod’s Theogony after Flaxman’s designs [Benezit II, 63]

Auguste Blanchard I (Paris, c.1766 – still working c.1832): Burin engraver. Blanchard worked for several booksellers engraving vignettes and illustrations that became very popular. His son, Auguste-Jean-Baptiste-Marie Blanchard II (Paris, 1792 – Paris, 1849), and his grand-son, Auguste-Thomas-Marie Blanchard III (Paris, 1819 – Paris, 1898), were burin engravers too. Blanchard II used to sign as “Blanchard fils” or, after his son was born, “Blanchard pere” [Benezit II, 60]

Alejandro Blanco y Asensio (fl. 1791 - 1848): Engraver and lithographer. Alejandro Blanco prepared the illustrations for Menéndez y Pelayo’s Poems and for Architectonic travel of Spain. He reproduced designs after Tiziano, Velázquez, Carracci and Rubens [Benezit II, 72]

E. Boix (19th century): Burin engraver working in Madrid around 1831.

Claude du Bosc (18th century): Engraver. Claude du Bosc engraved six plates with designs by Louis Du Guernier for Alexader Pope's "Rape of the Lock" (1714).

Jean de Bosschère (Uccle, 1881 - 1953): Belgian engraver, illustrator poet and writer. Bosschere lived and worked in Belgium, France, Italy and England. He made his debut in 1907 and illustrated several works, such as Ovidio's Amores and O. Wilde's Poems. He translated into English Flaubert's La Premiere Tentation de Saint Antoine. [Benezit II, 196]

François Boucher (Paris, 1703 – Paris, 1770): Painter, engraver and successful portraitist. Boucher was instructed by his father and by Le Moine. In 1721, he designed the illustrations for Daniel’s “History of France”, engraved by Baquoy. He engraved several Watteau’s designs by order of M. de Julienne. In 1723, Boucher won the first prize of the Academy with his “Evilmerodach déliverant Joaquim” ; he was only twenty years old. Favored by the Duke of Antin and pensioned by the king, he traveled to Rome with Carle van Loo; in Rome, he received Albani, Tiepolo and Baroccio’s influence. In 1731, he became a member of the Academy painting “Renaud et Armide”; in 1735, professor assistant; in 1737, professor; in 1761, president assistant; in 1761, president; and, in 1765, director. He worked for the tapestries manufacture in Beauvais too [Benezit II, 210-212]

Frederic Bouchot (1798 - ?): Designer, wood engraver and lithographer. Bouchot worked for numerous Parisian magazines, did many titles for musical pieces and collaborated on comical albums, as Caricature, Journal pour rire or Charivarí; he engraved Daumier’s designs. [Benezit II, 214]

Walter Boutall (England, 19th century): English printer and photoengraver. He established the firm of Walter & Boutall with Sir Emery Walker. The company had a studio on Fleet Street in the City of London from 1887 until 1900. The partnership was dissolved in 1900 and was succeeded by Walter & Cockerell.

Frederik Bouttats (? - 1676) [AKA: Frederik Bouttats "the Young"]: Engraver in Amberes, he is one of the most important of 17th century. He engraved portraits of artists and personalities of his own time (Louis XIII, Felipe II King of Spain, Cristina Queen of Sweden, Cromwell, the Duke of Brabant, the architect L. van Heil, the painters J.-B. van Heil and David Ryckaert...), religious subjects and illustrations for several editions (Images of men of spirit, 1649). In 1643, he was part of the Guild of Saint Luke in Amberes. He had twenty-four sons and daughters; some of them were engravers for publishers in Amberes and Colonia [Benezit 1976, II, 249]

Edme Bovinet (Chaumont, 1767 – Creil, 1832): Engraver. Bovinet engraved History and religious scenes, landscapes and portraits [Benezit II, 253]

George W. Boynton (Boston, 19th century): American engraver working in Boston between 1830 and 1842. He was a map engraver mainly [Benezit II, 258]

Félix Bracquemond (Paris, 1833-1914): French painter and etcher. Félix Bracquemond was trained in early youth as a trade lithographer, until Guichard, a pupil of Ingres, took him to his studio. His portrait of his grandmother, painted by him at the age of nineteen, attracted Théophile Gautier's attention at the Salon. He applied himself to engraving and etching about 1853, and played a leading and brilliant part in the revival of the etcher's art in France. Altogether he produced over eight hundred plates, comprising portraits, landscapes, scenes of contemporary life, and bird-studies, besides numerous interpretations of other artist's paintings, especially those of Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Gustave Moreau and Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot. After having been attached to the Sèvres porcelain factory in 1870, he accepted a post as art manager of the Paris atelier of the firm of Haviland of Limoges. He was connected by a link of firm friendship with Édouard Manet, James McNeill Whistler, and all the other fighters in the impressionist cause, and received all the honors that await the successful artist in France, including the grade of Officer of the Legion of Honor in 1889.

Mariano Brandi (Valencia, 18th century – 1819): Burin engraver. Mariano Brandi was a disciple of San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia, where he studied under Manuel Monforte. He finished his artistic studies in Madrid [Benezit II, 274]

N. Branguli (): Engraver working in Barcelona in the 19th century. He took part in two editions of Don Quixote (Barcelona: Montaner, 1880; and Barcelona: Tomás Gorchs, 1859) [Benezit II, 276]

Frank Brangwyn (Bruges, 1867 - Ditchling, 1956): Artist, painter, water colourist, virtuoso engraver and illustrator, and progressive designer. Frank Brangwyn received some artistic training, probably from his father, and later from Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo and in the workshops of William Morris, but he was largely an autodidact without a formal artistic education. When, at the age of seventeen, one of his paintings was accepted at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, he was strengthened in his conviction to become an artist. His choice of approaches was eclectic: He was like a jackdaw of art, taking the best and brightest jewels of each movement and then re-creating them in his own inimitable style. The chiaroscuro contrasts in his etchings are reminiscent of Giovanni Battista Piranesi or Rembrandt. His work has been compared to Oriental carpets, Italian Renaissance artists and the Old Masters, he was linked to various movements including Arts and Crafts, Vienna Secessionists, French Impressionists, the Nabis and Art Nouveau and his paintings show fleeting references to colleagues including Sir Alfred East, Dudley Hardy and Arthur Melville, but he was in essence his own man [Benezit: II, 276-277]

Louis-Henri Breviere (Forges-les-Eaux, 1797 – Hyères, 1869): Designer and engraver; he was specially known as wood engraver. He was a disciple of the School of Design in Rouen, where he settled as an all-genre-engraver and where he was the first lithographer. In 1829, Breviere was called by M. de Villebois for the Imprimerie Royale, where he engraved Chenavard’s designs for the album that would be send to the King and Queen of Naples. Since 1831, he exposed wood engravings after Raphael, Géricault and others in the Salon. In 1832, he discovers an industrial method to obtain print of different formats from the same plate. Between 1834 and 1855, he was Dessinateur et graveur de l’Imprimerie royale (then, national and imperial). Since 1831, he worked reproducing daguerreotypes in engraved plates. In 1862, Breviere was awarded with a medal of honor [Benezit II, 306]

Simón de Brieva (Zaragoza, 1742 – Madrid, 1795): Engraver [Benezit II, 312]

Simón Brieva (Zaragoza, 1742 – Madrid, 1795): Spanish engraver [Benezit II, 312]

William Bromley I (Carisbrooke, 1769 - ?, 1842): Engraver. Bromley, disciple of Wooding in London, became a successful engraver by the end of the 18th century, being appointed associate engraver of the Royal Academy in 1819. He was employed by the directors of the British Museum to engrave Corbould’s designs after the friezes of the Parthenon sent by Lord Elgin. He also engraved for Macklins Bible, Stothard’s designs for History of England, some of Sir Thomas Lawrence’s paintings and the portraits of the Duke of Wellington and Napoleon. His son, William Bromley II, and his grand-son, William Bromley III, were engravers too [Benezit II, 327]

Bruna (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1880.

R. Brunet (18th century): Engraver. Brunet, maybe Roch Brunet, engraved the plates for Cervantes' Don Quixote (La Haye/Paris: Chez Bleuet, 1774).

José Brunete (Madrid, 1747 – ¿?): Painter and engraver. One of his more known works is ¨Diana’s bath” [Benezit II, 361]

Budzilowicz (¿? – 1875): Engraver. Budzilowicz arrived to Paris in 1831 from Poland. He early succeeded as a wood engraver thanks to his engravings for Le Robinson Suisse (Paris: Lavigne, 1841) with Charles Lemercier’s designs or the ones for Adam’s Poetical works (1851). Budzilowicz also took part in Charles Gavard's Galeries historiques de Versailles (1837 - 1841, with steel engravings), for which he engraved the title page designed by Raynaud [Thieme V, 187]

Augustin Burdet (Paris, 1798 - ?): Engraver. Burdet, Guérin’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon in 1827. He engraved Psyché et l’Amour [Benezit II, 395]

William Byrne (London, 1743 – London, 1805): Engraver. He began his art instruction with his uncle; then, in France, he became a disciple of Jacques Aliamet (1726 – 1788) and Jean Georges Willet (1715 – 1808). He engraved designs after Italian masters and achieved a great reputation as a landscape engraver. His son, John Byrne (London, 1786 – 1847), was a watercolorist and an engraver too, working with his father [Benezit II, 426]

Caba (working in Madrid, 19th century): Wood engraver. Caba engraved five of the illustration for Don Quixote edition of Madrid: Biblioteca Universal Ilustrada, 1875 (and 1877).

Tomás Carlos Capuz (Valencia, 1834 – Madrid, 1899): Wood engraver. Capuz was a disciple of the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. Between 1860 and 1881 he exhibited at the National Exposition of Fine Arts. Some of his best-known works are La Virgen Madre y El Ángel del Juicio Final. He worked for several Spanish periodical publications, as El Museo Universal and La Ilustración Española y Americana. He also worked as an engraver of book illustrations, as the ones for Historial del Escorial [Benezit II, 511]

J. Caqué (19th century): Wood engraving working in Paris around 1836.

Carnicero (19th century): Illustration designer and engraver. Carnicero worked for different Spanish journals, History and Geography works and novels [Benezit II, 535]

Antonio Carnicero (Salamanca, 1748 – Madrid, 1814): Painter and illustration designer. He was son of the sculptor Alexandro Carnicero, Isidro Carnicero’s brother and disciple of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). After a period in Rome, he became a painter of Carlos III court. Some of his paintings are, at Prado Museum (Madrid), View of the Albufera and Ascent of a montgolfière; at the Academy, Godoy’s portrait; at Valencia, portraits of Carlos IV and María Luisa de Parma [Benezit II, 535]

Jean Louis Toussaint Caron (Paris, 1790 – Paris, 1832): Designer and burin engraver. He studied design with Coigny and Regnault and engraving with Etienne Frédéric Lignon. Caron, who exhibited at the Salon between 1824 and 1827, designed and engraved the portraits of Descartes and Boileau, and also engraved the one of the Duke Charles d’Orléans after Devéria’s design. He engraved illustrations for works by Voltaire, Rousseau and Cervantes too [Benezit II, 538]

Arturo Carretero y Sánchez (Santiago de Compostela, c. 1852 – Madrid, 1903): Wood engraver. Carretero was a disciple of Bernardo Rico and worked for different Spanish journals and illustrated publications as La Ilustración Española y Americana [Benezit II, 557]

Laurent Cars (Paris, 18th century): Burin engraver working in Paris around 1732.

José del Castillo (Madrid, 1737 – Madrid, 1793): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of José Romeo and was protected by José Carvajal, minister of State, who sent him to study at Rome. There, he worked with Corrado Gianquinto, Italian Rococo painter. During his second travel to Italy, his master was Reciado. When Castillo returned to Spain, he got the protection of the king, who ordered Meng to give Castillo work. He made some tapestry designs, portraits –Carlos III– and religious paintings for the royal convent of Las Salesas. He also engraved some designs after Luca Giordano, as Escape to Egypt, and after Cerezo, as Supper at Emaus. [Benezit II, 591]

Hendrik Cause (Antwerp, 1648 - Antwerp, 1699) [AKA: Hendrik Causé]: Engraver. Hendrik Cause, pupil of Richard Collin, engraved several views of Antwerp, portraits and book illustrations. Among his better known plates are those for La Fontaine's Fables (1688) [Benezit II, 601]

A. Cavenne (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet (París, 1792 – París, 1845): Designer, engraver and painter, more especially of military subjects. He was the son of a dragoon in the Republican army, whose death in the ranks left the widow and orphan in very poor circumstances, so Charlet initiated a military career. He served in the National Guard in 1814, fought bravely at the Barrière de Clichy, and, being thus unacceptable to the Bourbon party, was dismissed from the city administration in 1816. He then, having from a very early age had a propensity for drawing, entered the atelier of the distinguished painter Baron Gros, and soon began issuing the first of those lithographed designs which eventually brought him renown. His Grenadier de Waterloo (1817) with the motto "La Garde meurt et ne se rend pas" was particularly popular. It was only towards 1822, however, that he began to be successful in a professional sense. Lithographs (about 2.000 altogether), water-colors, sepia-drawings, numerous oil sketches, and a few etchings followed one another rapidly; there were also three exhibited oil pictures, the first of which was especially admired Episode in the Campaign of Russia (1836), the Passage of the Rhine by Moreau (1837) and Wounded Soldiers Halting in a Ravine (1843). Besides the military subjects in which he particularly delighted, Charlet designed many subjects of town life and peasant life, the ways of children, etc., with much wit and whim in the descriptive mottoes. One of the most famous sets is the Vie civile, politique et militaire du Caporal Valentin (50 lithographs, dating from 1838 to 1842). Since 1838, he worked as a professor of design at the École Polytechnique. The painters Géricault and Delacroix admired him [Benezit II, 674; I273-285]

Prosper-Adolphe-Léon Cherrier (Flessingue, 1806 - ¿?): Wood engraver. He was a disciple of Lacoste “father” and Godard. Cherrier engraved designs by Tony Johannot, Arnoult, Grandville, Gigoux, Forest, Lecurieux, Bouquet, Jules David, Becoeur and others. He collaborated with “Journal des Jeunes personnes” [Benezit II, 715]

Chevauchet (19th century): French wood engraver. He engraved for Grooms célèbres, Axiomes au crayon, Gavarni's L'Ancien Amoureux, Gigoux' Gil Blas, Chansons de Béranger, Histoire populaire de Napoléon, Borel's Robinson Crusoé, Le Français peint par euxmêmes, Les Etrangers à Paris and Henry Monnier’s Scènes populaires [Benezit II, 720]

Daniel-Nicolas Chodowiecki (Dantzig, 1726 – Berlin, 1801): Painter, engraver, illustrator and miniaturist. Born in Poland, in 1743 he arrived to Berlin. He was instructed in art by Haid and B. Rode, although Chodowiecki has been mainly considered a self-taught person. He succeeded as an illustrator for the Almanac of the Academy of Berlin; he designed and engraved plates with scenes from Jesus Christ’s life, Cervantes’ Don Quixote (1771) and others. In 1764, he became a member of the Academy of Berlin and a professor. As a painter, he was less successful. He painted great history compositions and genre scenes following Greuze and Pater’s style. His best works are his engravings (circa 2.896); illustrations for Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1772), Goethe’s Werther (1776), Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1778), Macbeth (1784), Henry IV (1785), The Merry Wives of Windsor (1786), Coriolanus (1786) and The Tempest (1787), works of Voltaire, Lessing, La Sage, Schiller, Rousseau, Lavater and others. The plates for Lavater’s Physiognomic Fragments (1775) took Chodowiechi 15 years [Benezit III, 9-10; Lenaghan 2003, 241-242]

Cibera (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Clemente (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1880.

Antoine Clouzier (17th century – 18th century) [AKA: Antoine Clousier]: Engraver. Clouzier worked in Paris c. 1688 [Benezit III, 78]

N. Cobo (End of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): Engraver working in Madrid around 1804.

Charles-Nicolas Cochin père (Paris, 1688 – Paris, 1754): Engraver and painter. He belongs to an important family of engravers and painters; his father, Charles Cochin, was a painter. Until he was twenty-two years old, he worked as a painter, then as an engraver. He engraved portraits and designs by Coypel, Lafosse, Watteau, Jouvenet.... He was father and master of Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young” (1715 – 1790) [Benezit III, 82-83]

Charles-Nicolas Cochin fils (Paris, 1715 – Paris, 1790) [AKA: Charles-Nicolas Cochin "the young"]: Painter, engraver and art theorist. His first masters were his own parents, Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the old” and Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, both burin engravers; important family of artists from which Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young” was the most remarkable. He also was instructed in drawing by Jean Restout II, receiving Chardin and Boucher’s influence. When he was only fifteen years old, he had already engraved notable plates. His principal occupation was as a designer (allegorical frontispieces, vignettes, fleurons, initials...) and as an illustrator (La Fontaine’s Tales, Virgilio’s Eneida, The Bible, Encyclopedia...) and he early succeed with plates as Les Pompes funèbres, Les cérémonies de la cour and Les Ports de France. On the occasion of the fireworks for the wedding between Louise-Elisabeth of France and the Spanish Infant, Cochin designed and engraved ten plates that were very successful too, as those four plates for the marriage of the Dolphin of France: Bal paré, Bal masqué, Cérémonie religieuse and Spectacle de gala; they have been considered as art masterpieces. More than 1.600 engravings were designed and/or engraved by him. In 1741, Cochin was named Academy attaché. In 1749, he traveled to Italy with M. de Vandiere (Madame de Pompadour’s brother) to improve his technique; he remained in this country until 1751. In this year, he was named a member of the Academy. In 1752, after Coypel’s death, Cochin succeed him as Garde du Cabinet des Estampes du Roi. In 1757, King Louis XV named Cochin member of the Ordre du Saint-Michel, designer and engraver of Menus-plaisirs and royal censor. As an art theorist, he wrote some important texts as Observations sur les antiquités d’Herculanum (1751), Réflexions sur la critique des ouvrages exposés au Louvre (1757), Voyage pittoresque d’Italie (1756) and Recueil de quelques pièces concernant les arts, avec une dissertation sur l’effet de la lumière et des ombres, relativement à la peinture (1757) [Benezit III, 83-84]

Louise-Magdeleine Cochin Horthemels (Paris, 1686 – Paris, 1767): Engraver. She was Charles-Nicolas Cochin’s wife and worked with his husband and sons (Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young”). She finished the plates about the paintings of the Invalides (Paris) that his husband had begun, and also the plates after Pannini began by her sons. It is well known her plate Fireworks in 1729 at Piazza Navona in Rome. She copied designs by Lebrun, Albano, Lancret, Rigaud, Poussin, Mignard and others [Benezit III, 85]

Georg-Joseph Coentgen (Mayence, 1725 – Mayence, 1799) [AKA: Georg-Joseph Contgen; Georg-Joseph Congen]: Painter and burin engraver. Coentgen was disciple of his own father, the German engraver Heinrich Hugo Coentgen, who worked in Frankfurt [Benezit III, 93]

Jacques-Joseph Coiny (Versailles, 1761 – Paris, 1809): Engraver. He was a disciple of Suvée and Jacques-Philippe Le Bas. Since 1802 until 1806, he exposed at the Salon. He engraved religious, History and mythological scenes, as well as vignettes for works of Racine, Léonard and La Fontaine. His son, Joseph Coiny (Paris, 1795 – Paris, 1829), was an engraver too [Benezit III, 98]

Charles-Amédée Colin (Bourg-en-Bresse, 1808 – Paris, 1873): Engraver. Colin studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris since 1825 as a disciple of Pauquet [Benezit III, 106]

Joseph Collyer (London, 1748 - ¿?, 1827): also called “the younger”: Engraver. After learning under Thomas Walker, he took a job with Boydell, who told Collyer to engrave a design after Teniers and Wheatley’s “Irish Volunteers”. He exhibited his works at the Royal Academy on a regular basis, and became a member of the Society of Arts and an Associate Engraver to the Royal Academy (1786); he was appointed engraver of Queen Charlotte too. He engraved portraits (it is well-known his engraving of Sir Joshua Reynolds’ portrait) and illustrations [Benezit III, 118]

Thomas Cook (c.1744 - London, 1818): Engraver. Thomas Cook was a pupil of Ravenet. He was known for his portraits (especially of British poets), for his scenes from Shakespeare, and for engravings after Hogarth. He engraved a series of illustrations after Hogarth's paintings and engravings between 1796 and 1803, published in 1806 in Hogarth Restored. The Whole Works of the Celebrated William Hogarth. Later, he re-engraved them again for John Nichols' The Genuine Works of William Hogarth (1808-10), with 160 plates.

Corvi (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

Coste (Paris, 19th century): wood engraver.

Louis François Couché fils (Paris, 1782-Paris, 1849): Designer and engraver. Disciple of Louis Lafitte (1770-1828) for drawing and his father Jacques Laying (1750-?) for etching. He essentially illustrated the Napoleonic legend. We owe him a series of portraits of Napoleon and his brothers, scenes of battles of the First Empire (after himself but also after Swebach and Duplessis-Bertaux), illustrations for The Story of Napoleon by Jacques of Norvins (1827) or allegorical scenes (Recovery by Napoleon I of the right for Jewish citizens to freely practice their religion). It is also the author of views of Paris monuments and Egypt, scenes of homage to Voltaire and portraits.

J. d. Coulet (18th century): Engraver. French engraver working in Paris by the end of the 18th century.

Antoine-Jean-Baptiste Coupé (Paris, 1784 - ?, after 1846): Engraver [Benezit III, 218]

Charles-Antoine Coypel (Paris, 1694 - Paris, 1752) [AKA: Charles-Antoine Coypel (copied after)]: History and genre painter and engraver. Antoine Coypel's son. Due to his early interest in painting, he was 20 years old when he was accepted into the French Académie. He made his debut as history painter, but he succeeded as genre painter. Les jeux d'enfants, his canvases about Don Quixote and his illustrations for Molière's works are noteworthy. In 1772, after his father’s death, he inherited his posts as royal directeur des tableaux and Duke of Orleans' first painter. In 1747, he was appointed as first painter of the King and director of the Academy. He was also a great writer of several successful comedies and tragedies. As an engraver, he was charming, amusing and satirical. His works are in Besançon, Chartres, Fontainebleau, Nantes, Paris and Toulouse [Benezit III, 247-248]

Crépy le fils (Paris, 18th century): Burin engraver working in Paris around 1732.

George Cruikshank (Bloomsbury, 1792 – London, 1878): Designer, painter, book illustrator, caricaturist and engraver. His father, the painter Isaac Cruikshank, was a famous caricaturist in London too. He is considered to be one of the best illustrators that Britain has produced. He worked for several journals and illustrated magazines. Between 1835 and 1853, he published several calendars, until he managed to publish his own George Cruikshank's Magazine. He is also one of Charles Dickens’ main illustrators. Cruikshank was one of the first artists to depict lifelike characters. He is a forerunner of illustrating books for young English people; he illustrated Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1831), Uncle Tom’s cabin (1852), Dickens’ Oliver Twist and Brothers Grimm’s German popular stories. Cruikshank elaborated two different sets of illustrations for Don Quixote: one in 1824 and another one in 1833. His brother, Robert-Isaac Cruikshank (London, 1789 – ¿?, 1856) was a watercolorist and a caricaturist too and worked with him [Benezit III, 290]

Juan de la Cruz Cano y Olmedilla (1734 – 1790): Spanish engraver and cartographer of His Majesty.

Dalziel Brothers (19th century): Wood engravers. The Dalziel Brothers were a highly and renown productive firm of Victorian engravers founded in London in 1839 by Edward Dalziel (Wooler, 1817 – Hampstead, 1905), assisted by his brother George (Wooler, 1815 – London, 1902); both sons of a Northumbrian artist, Alexander Dalziel (1781 – 1832). They were later joined by John (Wooler, 1822 – Drigg, 1869), Thomas (Wooler, 1823 – Herne Bay, 1906) and Margaret Jane Dalziel (Wooler, 1819 – London, 1894) and by George Dalziel’s son, Gilbert Dalziel (London, 1853 – 1930?). The Dalziel brothers worked with many important Victorian artists, producing illustrations for the burgeoning magazine and book market of the period. Among the artists they worked with were Arthur Boyd Houghton, John Gilbert, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and James McNeill Whistler. They also produced independent ventures, most notably The Parables of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (Routledge, 1864), illustrated by Millais. Three other brothers, William (Wooler, 1805 – Penarth, 1873), Robert (Wooler, 1810 – London, 1842) and Alexander John (Wooler, 1814 – Newcastle, 1836) worked as painters, designers and illustrators [Benezit III, 335-336]

George Dalziel (Wooler, Northumb, 1815 - London, 1902): The Dalziel Brothers were a highly productive firm of Victorian engravers founded in 1839 by George Dalziel (1815-1902) and his brother Edward (1817-1905). They were later joined by John Dalziel and Thomas Dalziel (1823-1906). All were sons of a the artist, Alexander Dalziel of Wooler in Northumberland. The Dalziel brothers worked with many important Victorian artists, producing illustrations for the burgeoning magazine and book market of the period. Among the artists they worked with were Arthur Boyd Houghton, John Gilbert, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and James McNeill Whistler. They cut the illustrations to Edward Lear's Book of Nonsense (1862); Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. They also produced independent ventures, most notably The Parables of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, (Routledge, 1864), illustrated by Millais, and contributed humorous cartoons to magazines such as Fun, which George and Edward acquired in 1865. Until the advent of photo-mechanical processes c 1880, they were pre-eminent in their trade. Examples of their work can be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. At the end of the nineteenth century they collaborated on an autobiographical summary of their work "The Brothers Dalziel, A Record of Work, 1840-1890" published by Methuen. []

Jean Dambrun (Paris, 1741 – after 1808): Burin engraver. Dambrun is one of the most remarkable engravers at the end of the 18th century. He engraved excellent vignettes after Fragonard, Moreau “le jeune”, Reni or Queverd’s designs. Dambrum took part in the plates for “Monument de Costume” with Moreau’s designs. He also worked for several 18th century almanacs [Benezit III, 337]

Moseley Isaac Danforth (Hartford, Connecticut, 1800 - New York, 1862): Danforth became a pupil of the Hartford graphic company in 1818, where he acquired a knowledge of bank-note engraving, and three years later settled in New Haven. Here he executed a plate after Raphael Morghen's engraving of the Parce somnum rumpere. Subsequently he came to New York and studied drawing, meanwhile continuing the practice of his art. He was one of the founders of the New York drawing association in 1825, and in January 1826, of the National academy of design. His large, full-length engraving of Lafayette was completed at this time, and secured him a cordial welcome by the artists of London on his arrival in England in 1827. For ten years he resided in London, studying in the Royal academy, where his drawings from the Elgin marbles were much admired, and enjoying the friendship of Thomas Lawrence, Charles R. Leslie, Stewart Newton, and David Wilkie. Several of his best-known engravings were made during this period, including the Sentry-Box after Leslie, portraits of Washington Irving and Sir Walter Scott by the same artist, and Don Quixote, although most of his work while in London seems to have been given to smaller plates for books. On his return to New York he engraved vignettes for bank-notes, and subsequently became partner in a bank-note engraving firm, which in 1858 was merged in the American bank-note company, of which corporation he was vice-president at the time of his death. His work was characterized by extraordinary finish and exquisite delicacy of tint.

Jean Daullé (Abbeville, 1703 – Paris, 1763): Engraver of portraits and History and religious scenes. He was instructed in design and engraving in Abbeville and, then, was a disciple of Hecquet in Paris. In 1742, he was admitted at the Academy. Daullé became one of the most important engravers in 18th century. He copied masterly designs after François Boucher, Poussin, Coypel, Ernst Dietrich, Allegri, Albano, Raoux, Jouvenet, Ribera, Charles-Nicolas Cochin “the young”, Vernet and others [Benezit III, 375]

Honoré Daumier (Marseille, 1808-Valmondois, 1879): French printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor, whose many works offer commentary on social and political life in France in the 19th century. During the reign of Louis Philippe, Charles Philipon launched the comic journal, La Caricature, Daumier joined its staff, which included such powerful artists as Devéria, Raffet and Grandville, and started upon his pictorial campaign of satire, targeting the foibles of the bourgeoisie, the corruption of the law and the incompetence of a blundering government. His caricature of the king as Gargantua led to Daumier's imprisonment for six months at Ste Pelagie in 1832. Soon after, the publication of La Caricature was discontinued, but Philipon provided a new field for Daumier's activity when he founded the Le Charivari. Daumier produced his social caricatures for Le Charivari, in which he held bourgeois society up to ridicule in the figure of Robert Macaire, hero of a popular melodrama. In another series, L'histoire ancienne, he took aim at the constraining pseudo-classicism of the art of the period. In 1848 Daumier embarked again on his political campaign, still in the service of Le Charivari, which he left in 1863 and rejoined in 1864. Around the mid 1840's Daumier started publishing his famous caricatures depicting members of the legal profession, known as 'Les Gens de Justice', a scathing satire about judges, defendants, attorneys and corrupt, greedy lawyers in general. A number of extremely rare albums appeared on white paper, covering 39 different legal themes, of which 37 had previously been published in the Charivari. It is said that Daumier's own experience as an employee in a bailiff's office during his youth may have influenced his rather negative attitude towards the legal profession.

Jérôme David (Paris, c. 1605/08 - c. 1670): French engraver. He was brother of Charles David (1600 – c. 1636), whose style he adopted. Often signs with the initials H.D.F. (Hyeronimus David Fecit). He primarily engraved portraits, but also biblical scenes and saints. [Hyeronimus David]

Guillaume-François-Laurent Debrie (18th century): Burin engraver, draughtsman, and book illustrator. Although Debrie's nationality is uncertain -probably Duth-, he worked in the Netherlands before settling in Paris and Lisbon, being active between 1733 and 1754.

Ch. Decaux (France, 19th century): Wood engraver working in Limoges around 1889.

F. Deeves (London, 19th century): Engraver working in London around 1811.

Henri Delaville (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Delaville was one of Henri Désiré Porret’s disciples. He exhibited at the Salon between 1851 and 1865 [Benezit III, 463]

François Jacques Dequevauviller (Paris, c. 1783 - ?, c. 1848): Portrait and book illustration engraver. He was son and disciple of the engraver François Nicolas Barthelemy Dequevauviller (Abbeville, 1745 – Paris, c. 1807, whose engravings were very estimated. François Jacques Dequevauviller was well-known because of the light effects of his prints [Benezit III, 500]

Charles-Melchior Descourtis (Paris, 1753 - Paris, 1820): French printmaker. He was a pupil of Jean-François Janinet and, like him, specialized in the production of colour prints using aquatint and wash-manner. Among his earliest known works is a series of four engravings of views of Paris and Rome after paintings by Pierre Antoine de Machy, which appeared in 1784. He collaborated with Janinet on the illustrations for Vues remarquables des montagnes de la Suisse (1785), which were engraved after several artists. He is best known, however, for his four colour prints after the genre scenes of Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, notably the Village Wedding (1785) and its pendant, the Village Fair (1788). Such prints of genre scenes were avidly collected by contemporaries. Descourtis also produced a number of portrait engravings, including Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia (1791). From the later 1790s he engraved numerous works after Jean-Frédéric Schall, notably the Lover Surprised and the Peeping Toms, as well as a series of illustrations to Bernardin de Saint-Pierre's novel Paul et Virginie (1788).

Sebastien Desmarets (): French engraver who worked since the end of 18th century. He engraved Zar Alexander’s portrait after Nigri [Benezit III, 525]

Achille Jacques Jean Devéria (Paris, 1800 – Paris, 1857): Painter, designer, engraver and lithographer. He was a disciple of M. Laffitte and Girodet. In 1848, he was appointed as associate conservator of the “Cabinet des Estampes” and, in 1855, titular conservator. He is the author of a great number of lithographies published between 1828 and 1835; talented lithographer. As an engraver, he copied by etching the designs of his brother and history painter, Eugene Devéria (Paris, 1808 – Pau, 1865). In 1822, he exposed at the Salon. Since 1830, he is a successful book illustrator. His series of portraits of French Romanticism notable men (Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Dumas, Liszt...) is quite remarkable [Benezit III, 547 – 548]

Claude-Marie-François Dien (Paris, 1787 – Paris, 1865): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Reboul and Audoin. In 1809, he won the first prize in engraving, in 1838 and 1848 a first class medal and, in 1853, he was decorated with the “Légion d’honneur”. Between 1822 and 1861 he exposed engravings and watercolors at the Salon; the most of his engravings are portraits, genre and religious scenes for books (Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Reboul and Audoin. In 1809, he won the first prize in engraving, in 1838 and 1848 a first class medal and, in 1853, he was decorated with the “Légion d’honneur”. Between 1822 and 1861 he exposed engravings and watercolors at the Salon; the most of his engravings are portraits, genre and religious scenes for books [Benezit III, 572]

Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (Strasbourg, 1832 – Paris, 1883): Designer, engraver, painter and sculptor. Doré designed his first lithographs at thirteen and published his first work, Le Travaux d’Hercules, at fourteen. He became a book illustrator in Paris, and his commissions included works by Rabelais, Balzac, and Dante. In 1853 he was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron. This commission was followed by other work for British publishers, including a new illustrated English Bible. He also illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven. Doré's English Bible (1865) was a great success, and in 1867 he had a major exhibition of his work in London. This led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in New Bond Street. In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. The book, London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 engravings, was published in 1872. It was a financial success and Doré received commissions from other British publishers. His later work included Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton's Paradise Lost, Tennyson's The Idylls of the King, The Works of Thomas Hood, and The Divine Comedy. His work also appeared in the Illustrated London News. Doré continued to illustrate books until his death; around 50 books were illustrated by him. The illustrations for Don Quixote were prepared during a journey through Spain accompanied by Baron Charles Davillier in 1861 – 1862. Doré has been considered the most remarkable Romanticism illustrator [Benezit III, 640 – 642]

Mdme. Duflos (18th century): Engraver and acquafortist. She worked with her husband, Pierre Duflos. She etched some plates for “Recueil d’estampes représentant les grades, les rangs et les dignités suivant les costumes de toutes les nations” (1780), for “Abrégé de l’histoire universelle en figures” (1785) and for an edition with Claude Joseph Dorat’s works [Benezit III, 717]

Pierre Duflos (Lyon, 1742 – Paris, 1816): Burin engraver. Duflos worked in Paris, where he engraved numerous plates, as those 264 for “Recueil d’estampes représentant les grades, les rangs et les dignités suivant les costumes de toutes les nations” (1780). Also plates after Charles Monnet’s designs and two frontispieces for “Abrégé de l’histoire universelle en figures” (1785). His wife, Mdme. Duflos, worked with him; they both etched vignettes for an edition with Claude Joseph Dorat’s works [Benezit III, 717]

Joseph-Julien-Guillaume Dulompré (Paris, 1789 - ?): Engraver. Dulompré, disciple of Lafitte, engraved portraits and book illustrations [Benezit IV, 10]

Auguste Dutillois (19th century): French burin engraver. He exhibited at the Salon between 1831 and 1838 [Benezit IV, 71]

Johann Michael Eben (Biebrich, 1716 – 1761): Burin engraver. Johann Michael Eben worked mainly as an engraver of book illustrations and portraits [Benezit IV, 98]

Francis Engleheart (London, 1775 – London, 1849): Engraver. He was a disciple of the engraver Joseph Collyer (London, 1748 - ¿?, 1827) and worked as an assistant of the burin engraver James Heath (London, 1757 – London, 1834. He engraved several book illustrations, being remarkable these for “Don Quixote”. Some of his engravings are: “The only daughter” after Sir David Wilkies, “The Castle” after Cook, “Cupid and the Nymphs” after W. Hilton and “The Holy Family” after Fra Bartolommeo [Benezit IV, 166]

Estevanillo (Barcelona, 19th century) [AKA: Estebanillo]: Illustrator and engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

Rafael Esteve Vilella (Valencia, 1772 – Madrid, 1847): Burin engraver. Rafael Esteve was son and disciple of the sculptor José Esteve Bonet. He studied at San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia and from 1789 studied with a grant at San Fernando Royal Academy in Madrid. He contributed engravings to Nicolás Barsanti's Retratos de los Españoles ilustres, con un epítome de sus vidas (Madrid, 1791), Real Picadero de Carlos IV (Madrid, 1799) and La artillería volante (Madrid, 1796); and engraved portraits for Guía de Forasteros (Madrid, 1800). In 1800 he made the portraits of Carlos IV and Queen María Luisa, and from 1802 he was “Grabador de Cámara”. He is known for his engraving of the Miracle of the Waters, after the painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1821). He traveled to Italy and in 1834 was in Paris and London. His fine technique was recognized in his appointment in 1839 as “académico de mérito” of San Carlos Royal Academy, where he became “Director de Grabado” in 1841. He was also made “grabador de honor” of the same institution. [Benezit: 1999, V, 197]

J. Joaquín Fábregat (Torreblanca, 1748 – Madrid, 1807): Engraver. He was a disciple of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia). He engraved some designs after Luca Giordano [Benezit IV, 238]

Ángel Fatjó y Bartra (Reus, ? – Barcelona, 1889): Engraver. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona. Fatjó engraved the illustrations for the guide Barcelona Antigua y Moderna; his plates with the Virgin of Montserrat and other religious subjects were well-known too [Benezit IV, 281]

Jean-Claude-Auguste Fauchery (Paris, 1798 – Paris, 1843): Painter and engraver. Fauchery attended the Ecole de Beaux-Arts since 1813 and, then, he continued his art studies with Regnault and Guérin. Since 1827 until 1834 he exhibited at the Salon of Paris and in 1831 he was awarded with a second class medal [Benezit IV, 283]

Adrien Feart (Sedan, 1813 - ?): Sculptor, designer and medalist. Feart, H. Dantan’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1845 and 1879. He engraved Rafael’s Marriage of the Virgin [Benezit IV, 299]

Ferdinand (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Some of his works are: plates for the Musée des Costumes, portrait of Nicolas I of Russia after Krüger’s painting (1835), plates for Les Mystères de la Russie after Jeanson’s designs (1845) and for Panthèon des Martyrs de la Liberté after R. de Moraine’s designs and Le Géneral Moreau et Napoléon III after Eugène Lami [Benezit IV, 319]

William Finden (¿?, 1787 – London, 1852): Engraver. He was a disciple of James Mitan (London, 1776 - ¿?, 1822). In collaboration with his brother, Edward Francis Finden (London, 1791 – London, 1857) and with his assistants and disciples, William Finden published beautiful series as “The Gallery of the Graces” after Chalon, Landseer and others (1832 – 1834), “Portraits of Dames of the Queen Victoria” after Chalon, Hayter and others and “Portraits of Notable Men of Great Britain”. Both brothers engraved plates for books as “Life and works of Lord Byron”, “Artistic travels” and “Poetical works of Campbell”. Some of his most well-known engravings are: “George IV” after Sir Thomas Lawrence, “Inside of a house of a Highlander” after Sir Edwin Landseer and “Crucifixion” after Hilton. In the present edition, one engraving is signed “Finden” and other “W. Finden”; maybe, they are by both brothers [Benezit IV, 370]

James Fittler (London, 1758 – Turnham Green, 1835): Burin engraver. He was renowned because of his masterly use of light. In 1778, he began his instruction at the schools of the Royal Academy. In 1800, he became an associate engraver. Some of his engravings are: The victory of Lord Howe, The Battle of Nil after De Loutherbourg and the portrait of Benjamin West. He also engraved plates for several publications, as Bell’s British Theater, Scotia Depicta after Claude Nattes and The Illustrated Bible [Benezit IV, 386]

Simon Fokke (Amsterdam, 1712 – Amsterdam, 1784): Designer and engraver. Fokke was J.-C. Philips’ disciple. He designed portraits and vignettes for several publications. He engraved several plates for other “Don Quixote” (La Haye: Gosse, 1744) [Benezit IV, 416]

Folkard (19th century): Wood engraver working in London around 1842.

Jacob Folkema (Dokkum, 1692 – Amsterdam, 1767): Designer and engraver. Folkema, disciple of his father, Jacobsz Folkema, who was a goldsmith, and Bernard Picart, was a successful black manner engraver [Benezit IV, 417]

Follin (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1863.

Eugène-Hippolyte Forest (Strasbourg, 1808 - 1891): Landscape and genre painter, engraver and lithographer. Forest was a disciple of Camille Roqueplan and he also collaborated with Jean-Ignace-Isidore Gérard Grandville (1803 – 1848). Forest exhibited at the Salon between 1846 and 1866 and, as an engraver, he worked for several publications, such as La Caricature or Charivari, and caricature albums, many of them following Henri Monnier’s style. He also designed lithographs and vignettes for illustrated books [Benezit IV, 436]

Samuel Freeman (1773 – 1857): Engraver. Samuel Freeman worked in London as an engraver copying designs after Correggio, Rafael and Van Dyck, among others [Benezit IV, 512]

Jean-Jacques Frilley (Paris, 1797 – 1850?): Engraver and designer. Frilley, Pauquet’s disciple, studied at the School of Fine Arts since 1814 and, between 1824 and 1850, he exhibited at the Salon [Benezit IV, 533]

Joaquín Furnó y Abad (Barcelona, 9th century): Engraver. He engraved the illustrations for Balaguer’s Historia de Cataluña [Benezit IV, 559]

Antoine-Joseph Gaitte (Paris, 1753 - ?): Engraver. Gaitte made his debut at the Salon in 1835. Among his best-known works are some views of Paris and monuments [Benezit IV, 585]

Jaime Gaspar (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Charles-Etienne (Stephen) Gaucher (Paris, 1741 – Paris, 1804): Engraver. Gaucher engraved religious scenes, portraits and book illustrations. He was a disciple of Bazan and Jacques-Philippe Le Bas [Benezit IV, 633]

Geoffrey (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Geoffrey engraved Cervantes’ portrait after Devéria’s design (based on José del Castillo’s portrait for Madrid: Ibarra, 1780).

Pierre-Nicolas Géraut (Paris, 1786 – Paris, 1851) [AKA: Pierre-Nicolas Gérault]: Engraver. Gérault, Levillain’s disciple, made his debut at the Salon in 1822 [Benezit IV, 682]

William B. Gihon (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver working in Philadelphia between 1845 and 1860. He was for a number of years associated with Reuben S. Gilbert. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 258.]

Gerónimo Antonio Gil (Zamora, 1732 – Mexico, 1798): Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of Tomás Prieto [Benezit IV, 719]

José Pedro Gil Moreno de Mora (Paris, 1892 - 1945): Illustrator and engraver. José Pedro Gil was trained in Paris as an engineer and as an engraver under Maurice Achener. He was a member of the "Agrupación de Amigos del Libro de Arte" (ALA ), the society set up in Paris by Eugenio d'Ors in collaboration with Adelia Acevedo. As a writer and illustrator, he is best known in France than in Spain. In Paris he illustrated two bibliophile editions of Spanish theme: Miguel de Cervantes' Constance: l'Illustre Servante (1931), and Georges Grappe's Un soir à Cordue (1932), his best-known work. Both books are illustrated with drypoints, in the delicate style that characterizes this artist. Founding member of the "Asociación de Bibliófilos de Barcelona" (ABB), his intervention was decisive in the constitution of this society.

Reuben S. Gilbert (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver and book illustrator in Philadelphia c. 1830-50. He executed a number of book illustrations, independently and as a member of the firm Gilbert & Gihon. He also exhibited engravings at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1830-31 and 1834. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 259.]

Charles Gillot (Paris, 1853 – 1903): Engraver and collector. Charles Gillot, son of the inventor of the Paniconography, Firmin Gillot (1820-1872), invented in 1872 the process to faith-fully reproduce drawings and sketches: the gillotage. Some years later, the gillotage was improved to allow shading and tones: photoengraving. He opened the first commercial photo-engraving firm in Paris in 1876 and this process quickly predominated in the illustrated newspapers and books of the period, such as for example: Le Charivari, Le Rire, L'assiette au beurre, Gil Blas Illustre, and many others. Charles Gillot was also known as one of the most important collectors of Japanese and Medieval art [Benezit: 1976, V, 3]

Daniel Girard (Paris, 1890-?) [AKA: Daniel-Girard]: French painter, engraver and illustrator.

François Godefroy (Rouen, 1743 – Paris, 1819): Burin engraver. He took part in several expositions between 1798 and 1810. He engraved designs after Fragonard (“Annette”), Huet and Le Prince. His son and disciple, Adrien-Pierre-François Godefroy “jeune” (Paris, 1777 – Paris, 1865) was a burin engraver too. [Benezit V, 77]

Richard Golding (London, 1785 – Lambeth, 1865): Engraver. He engraved book illustrations for “Don Quixote” and “Gil de Blas” and completed the unfinished works of James Parker. Some of his better-known engravings are: “Nelson’s death” after M. West, “Saint Ambrose prohibiting Theodosius to enter into the church”, “Princess Victoria at the age of nine” after Westall and “Henry Calvert” [Benezit V, 93]

Gómez (Spain, 19th century): Wood engraver working in barcelona around 1880.

Ferdinand-Sébastien Goulu (Paris, 1796 - ?): Engraver. In 1810, he exhibited at the Salon [Benezit V, 133]

J. Gowland (working in Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. French wood engraver working in Paris c. 1836-37.

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Fuendetodos,1746-Bordeaux, 1828): Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes is regarded as the most important Spanish artist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Over the course of his long career, Goya moved from jolly and lighthearted to deeply pessimistic and searching in his paintings, drawings, etchings, and frescoes. Born in Fuendetodos, he later moved with his parents to Saragossa and, at age fourteen, began studying with the painter José Luzán Martínez (1710–1785). In 1746, the year of Goya's birth, the Spanish crown was under the rule of Ferdinand VI. Subsequently, the Bourbon king Charles III (r. 1759–88) ruled the country as an enlightened monarch sympathetic to change, employing ministers who supported radical economic, industrial, and agricultural reform. Goya came to artistic maturity during this age of enlightenment. For the bold technique of his paintings, the haunting satire of his etchings, and his belief that the artist's vision is more important than tradition, Goya is often called "the first of the moderns." His uncompromising portrayal of his times marks the beginning of 19th-century realism.

F. Grenan (): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836-37.

Charles Grignion I (London, 1716 – Kentishtown, 1810): Designer and burin engraver. Grignion, whose parents were French, was a member of the committee for the Royal Academy foundation. Between his first works, his plates with anatomical designs for Albinus’ work (1757) are remarkable. He also engraved Dalton’s designs for Antique statues, plates for Vatican tapestries (1753) and for Bell’s British poems. In collaboration with Hogarth, Grignion engraved Garrick in the role of Richard III [Benezit V, 208-209]

Charles Grignion II (London, 1754 - Leghorn, 1804): Engraver, History painter and portraitist. Charles Grignion II, son of Charles Grignion the elder, was disciple of Cipriani and of the Royal academy too. In 1776, he was awarded with a golden medal and, between 1770 and 1784, he exhibited at the Royal Academy [Benezit V, 209]

Reynolds Grignion (? – Chelsea, 1787): Engraver

Gerard van der Gucht (London, 1696 - London, 1776): Engraver and art dealer. Jan van der Gucht's brother and Louis Cheron's disciple. His father and master, Michael van der Gucht, engraved for London: Chiswell, 1700. He worked as engraver for several booksellers and for sir Hans Sloane. In Sloane's work The Four Seasons, Gerard van der Gucht is mentioned after Coypel. He had thirty sons [Benezit V, 260-261]

Jan van der Gucht (London, 1697 - London, 1776) [AKA: John van der Gucht]: Engraver and caricaturist; Gerard van der Gucht's brother. His father and master, Michael van der Gucht, engraved for London: Chiswell, 1700. He used etching finished by burin and dry point. He worked at the Painter's drawing Academy and was friend and colleague of William Hogarth. He made the plates for "Osteographia or the anatomy of the bones" by W. Cheselden (1733, excellent caricatures and some engravings from Thornill´s designs about saint Paul´s life [Benezit, 1976, V, 261]

Michael van der Gucht (Amberes, 1660 - London, 1725): Flemish school engraver disciple of Frederik Bouttats in Amberes. He married Maria van Haghenberg in Amsterdam in 1682 and traveled to London to work for David Loggan. He was well-known due to his anatomical figures and his illustration for the "England History" by Carendon. It is highlighted his "Savage portrait" [Benezit: 1976, V, 261]

Jean-Baptiste-Amédée Guillaume (Bercy, 1822 – Paris, 1893): Engraver. Guillaume, Louis-Henri Brévière’s disciple, made his debut at the Salon in 1859. Guillaume engraved a portrait of Cervantes in a boat designed by A. Brun after Pacheco's painting (Saint Peter Nolasco) for the Magasin Pittoresque (1879) [Benezit: 1976, V, 291; Ashbee, 394, 146]

Claude-Nicolas-Eugèns Guillaumot (Paris, 1813 - ¿?, 1869): Wood engraver. Guillaumot was a disciple of Lacoste "father". In 1855, he exposed in the Salon for the first time, being awarded with a second class medal [Benezit V, 295]

Guillaume le Barrois d'Orgeval, Guydo (1868-1931): Guillaume le Barrois d'Orgeval, who signed with Guydo, was a French writer, illustrator and caricaturist. He came from a family of ancient nobility, and had no artistic background or education. He debuted in 1890, illustrating 'La Pupille de Pollichinelle' by O. Le Roy. Since 1893, he contributed to many satirical magazines of the time, including Le Triboulet, Nos Vieux, La Caricature and Le Chat Noir. For the latter, he drew various black cats, that became mascottes for the magazine and the cabaret. He continued his career as an artist and caricaturist in pretigious magazines like Femina, Le Rire, L'Amour, L'Assiette au Beurre, Chronique Amusante, Le Frou Frou, Gil Blas and La Lanterne de Bruant. In 1908, he was one of the illustrators for the illustrated encyclopedia magazine Je Sais Tout. He began a collaboration with La Semaine de Suzette in 1905. Guydo additionally wrote and illustrated children's books. He was part of the Montmartre artist group in Paris. Guydo died in 1931, and his personal diaries and memoires were destroyed during a bombing in World War II. []

Johan-Jakob-Georg Haas (Copenhagen, 1756 – Copenhagen, 1817): Engraver. He was son and disciple of the engraver Jonas Haas (1720 – 1775); Jakob Haas also was instructed by Johann Georg Preisler (Copenhagen, 1757 – Copenhagen, 1831) at the Academy of Copenhagen, where he overcome his education brightly, and by Nicolas Launay in Paris. He traveled to this city to complete his education with his brother Johan Meno Haas, an engraver too. Jakob was admitted to the Royal Academy of Paris in 1782 and to the Academy of Copenhagen in 1783. He was named engraver of the Danish court. He engraved “La Revue du Prince royal de Danemark” and “Scènes du Nord”, both after Lorentzen [Benezit V, 336]

Johan Meno Haas (Hamburg, 1752 – Berlin, 1833): Painter and engraver. He was son and disciple of the engraver Jonas Haas (1720 – 1775); Meno Haas also was instructed by Johann Georg Preisler (Copenhagen, 1757 - Copenhagen, 1831) at the Academy of Copenhagen and by Nicolas Launay in Paris. He traveled to this city with his brother Johan-Jakob-Georg Haas, an engraver too. In 1786, he was commissioned to copy the art works of the Gallery of Berlin and, in 1793, he was named a member of the Academy of Berlin. Meno Haas worked for several booksellers and he engraved plates with designs of contemporaneous German painters [Benezit V, 336]

W. Haines (End of the 18th century - beginning of the 19th century): Engraver working in Philadelphia around 1803.

Louis-Michel Halbou (1730 – beginning 19th century): Burin engraver. He worked in Paris engraving religious scenes and portraits [Benezit V, 360]

Hale (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836-37.

Jacobus Harrewÿn (1662 - 1733) [AKA: Jacob Harrewyn; Jacobus Harrewijn]: Designer and engraver. Harrewÿn lived and worked in Amsterdam, where he got married, Antwerp, where he became a master, and Brussels, where his son François Harrewÿn was born. Jacobus engraved two views of Rubens’ house and some plates for Le Roy’s work Castella et Praetoria Nobilium Brabantiae. His son François (1700 – 1764) was a designer and an engraver too and also his disciple [Benezit V, 411]

Jean-Baptiste Haussard (1679/80-1749): French copper engraver

W. Hawkins (working in London by the end of 18th century): Engraver. Hawkins engraved some plates after Corbould and others’ designs for Don Quixote (London: Cooke, c. 1797).

Charles Heath “the elder” (¿?, 1785 – London, 1848): Watercolorist and burin engraver. He was the son of the burin engraver James Heath (London, 1757 – London, 1834). Charles Heath engraved views and mythological scenes. Between 1801 and 1825, he exposed at the Royal Academy and at Suffolk Street. He became a member of the Society of British Artists. His son, Charles Heath “the young” was a portrait painter and en engraver too [Benezit V, 447]

James Heath (London, 1757 – London, 1834): ): Burin engraver. Heath was an apprentice of the engraver Joseph Collyer. He was soon commissioned to engrave drawings and designs by a rising artist, Thomas Stothard (1755 – 1834), and his work appeared in John Bell's The Poets of Great Britain (1779 – 1781) and Harrison's best-selling Novelists' Magazine (1780 – 1788). He worked prolifically, producing prints for John Bell's The British Theatre (1791 – 1797) and John Boydell’s (1791 – 1803). In 1791, Heath was elected an Associate Engraver to the Royal Academy and, in 1794, he was appointed Historical Engraver to George III, a position he would hold under successive monarchs until his death. He published his own edition of Shakespeare (1802) to rival Boydell's, preparing all the engravings himself after designs by Stothard and Henry Fuseli (1741 – 1825). In 1801, Heath pioneered a further new field, producing in collaboration with the German patentee Philipp Andre the first lithographic prints to be published in Great Britain. Heath's later years also contained a number of commercial successes, notably plates of the Death of Lord Nelson (1811) after Benjamin West and of The Canterbury Pilgrims (1817) after Stothard (a work left unfinished at his death by Lewis Schiavonetti and completed by Heath). He finally retired from business in 1822, the year that saw the publication of his edition of Hogarth's Works, for which he had re-engraved from the original worn copper-plates 116 of Hogarth's drawings [Benezit V, 447]

Martin Rudolf Heland (Birch's parish of Södermanland, 1765-Stockholm,1814): Swedish copper engraver. Heland might be apprenticed to the skilled engraver J. F. Martin, under whose guidance he soon won a rare skill in his art, while he received instruction in drawing under Masreliez. After Jacob Gill's death in 1793, he was commissioned to continue engraving King Gustav III's medal, which never was completed. In 1802, Heland went to Paris, where he was further educated in aquatin-engraving, as he learned of Martin, and in 1806 he returned as a consummate master of this. Unfortunately, he soon fell into a deep melancholy, which was increasingly getting worse and ended the talented artist's career. Of his many works may be, except pre-talked-about, included a number of posters to Skjöldebrand's Voyage pittoresque au Cap Nord (1801-02).

Joseph Highmore (London, 1692 - Canterbury, 1780): Portraitist and History painter. In 1725, he illustrated a work about the Ordre du Bain. [Bénézit (1999): VII, 40]

John James Hinchliff (1805 - 1875): British engraver. Hinchliff was the son of the sculptor John Elley Hinchliff. He specialized in engravings of landscapes. The best known are those that appeared in the collections entitled Gentlemen's Residences, Castles and Abbeys of England and Picturesque Views of Wales. [Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators, Vol. 1, 2012, 550-551]

William Hogarth (London, 1697 – London, 1764): Genre and History painter, etching and burin engraver, pictorial satirist and editorial cartoonist. Hogarth was one of the leading British artists of the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as an engraver and by 1720 established his own business printing billheads, book illustrations and funeral tickets. In his spare time he learnt to paint, firstly at St. Martin's Lane Academy and then under Sir James Thornhill, whose daughter he married in 1729. He made a name for himself with small family groups and conversation pieces. Around this time he also set himself up as a portrait painter. Shortly afterwards, in c. 1731, he executed his first series of modern morality paintings, a totally new concept intended for wider dissemination through engraving. A Harlot's Progress (six scenes, destroyed by fire) was followed by A Rake's Progress (c. 1735, eight scenes, London, Sir John Soane's Museum) and Marriage a la Mode (c. 1743, six scenes, London, National Gallery). From 1735 to 1755 he ran his own academy in St. Martin's Lane. Indeed, Hogarth did more than any other artist to establish a credible English school of painting. In the late 1730s he gathered a group of painters together to paint history paintings for presentation to Thomas Coram's Foundation, the exhibition of which was immensely successful. In 1753 he published The Analysis of Beauty, written from the conviction that an artist has a better understanding of the arts than do connoisseurs [Benezit V, 581-582]

Pedro Hortigosa (Segovia, 1811 – Madrid, 1870): Painter and engraver. It is well-known his engraving of Queen Isabel II [Benezit V, 623]

Laurent Hotelin (Vallant Saint-Georges, 19th century): Wood engraver. Hotelin, disciple of Caillois, made his debut at the Salon in 1863. He engraved Doré’s designs for Dante’s Inferno in collaboration with Pannemaker, Pisan, Linton and John Quartly [Benezit V, 626]

William Hughes (Liverpool, 1793 – London, 1825): Wood engraver. He was a disciple of Henry Hale. Hughes has been considered as one of the best English wood engravers. He engraved illustrations for Dibdin’s “Bibliographical Decameron” (1817) Johnson’s “Typographia” and Ottleys’ “History of engraving” [Benezit V, 658]

James Hulett (? - 1771): Engraver. Hulett resided in London, and was extensively employed on illustrations for books. His engravings do not possess any particular merit. He engraved plates for many books, including D. de Coetlogon's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1745), and portraits of the Earl of Essex and Lord Fairfax for Peck's Life and Actions of Oliver Cromwell; besides a view of The Bridge over the Thames at Hampton Court after Canaletto, and a portrait of Owen Farrell, the Irish dwarf, after H. Gravelot.

Jules-Jean-Marie-Joseph Huyot (Toulouse, 19th century): Wood engraver. Huyot was a disciple of his father, the burin engraver Etienne Huyot. He exhibited at the Salon since 1868 and was awarded a third class medal in 1887 and a second class medal in 1894; he was also decorated with the Légion d’Honneur. His engravings after Maurice Leloir’s designs for Manon Lescaut are specially remarkable [Benezit V, 685]

Alfred Johannot (Offenbach, 1800 – Paris, 1837): Engraver and History and genre painter. He arrived to Paris in Paris with his father. Tony and Charles Johannot’s brother [Benezit VI, 81]

Charles Johannot (Offenbach, 1798 – Paris, 1825): Engraver. He arrived in Paris with his father, Tony and Alfred Johannot’s brother [Benezit VI, 81]

Tony Johannot (Offenbach, 1803 – Paris, 1852): Engraver, illustrator and genre and history painter. He began working as a burin engraver (in 1827 he participated in the Salon as an engraver), but since 1831 he specialized in painting; in this year, he was awarded with a first medal for a genre scene (in 1848 too). Johannot has been recognized as one of the most representative artists of Romanticism; he used to take part in Chales Nodier’s literary salons in the Bibliotèque de l’Arsenal. Johannot’s most successful works were his vignettes, art where Johannot shows a masterly genius. He elaborated illustrations for more than 150 literary works (more than 3.000 illustrations): Don Quixote (1836), Paul et Virginie (1838), Manon Lescaut (1840), Les Saints Evangiles (1842), Werther (1845), Les Chansons de Béranger, Le Voyage Sentimental, Le Faust... and also works by Molière, Nodier and Balzac. He also collaborated with some illustrated magazines, as L’Artiste, Musée des Familles, L'Illustration or Magasin pittoresque [Benezit VI, 81]

David Claypoole Johnston (Philadelphia, 1797/99 – Dorchester, 1865): Acquafortist, engraver and designer for lithography and xylography. Johnston studied engraving with Francis Kearney, of Philadelphia, and became an engraver of original caricatures, which found ready sale; but the originals were so readily recognized that they became loud in their complaints and threats, and the print and book-sellers, fearing libel suits, declined to invest their money in his prints, or to expose them for sale. Johnston then adopted the stage, appearing for the first time at the Walnut street theatre on 10 March, 1821, as Henry in Speed the Plow. In 1825 he went to Boston and entered on an engagement at the Boston theatre. At the close of the first season he retired from the stage and set up an engraver's office in that city. In 1830 he began the publication of Scraps, an annual of five plates, each containing nine or ten separate humorous sketches with caricatures of politicians and celebrities. His work brought him both fame and money [Benezit VI, 88]

Louis Jou (Barcelona, 1896 (or 1882) - Baux-de-Provence, 1968) [AKA: Luis Felipe Vicente Jou i Senabre]: Painter, typographer, wood-engraver, and illustrator. Of Spanish origin, Louis Jou moved to Paris in 1902 to work as a typographer; he always insisted he was an "artisan", not a "maître". He learned engraving working for Emile Bernard and Raoul Dufy. He moved to Les Baux in 1916. Besides the wood engravings for which he is best known, Louis Jou also produced etchings and drypoints. His works are highly-demanded by bibliophilers: among others, Montaigne's Les Essais; E. Hello's Physionomie des Saints; Cervantes' Don Quichotte, and Le Jaloux Carrizales d'Estremadures (a translation of El celoso extremeño); Machiavelli's The Prince; V. Hugo's Phrases choisies; Oscar Wilde's Salomé; Boccaccio's Decameron; R. Gourmont's La Petite Ville; Paul Valery's Alphabet; Alfred de Vigny's Poésies; or André Gide's Le Retour de l'Enfant prodigue. [Bénézit, 1999, VII, 608.]

L. Jouenne (France, 19th - 20th centuries): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1900.

François Joullain (Paris, 1697 – Paris, 1778): Burin engraver and acquafortist. He was a disciple of Claude Gillot (1673 – 1722), whose style Joullain continued. Laurent Cars was his master too. He engraved designs by Watteau, Nicolas Lancret, Gillot, Cabari and, above all, Coypel (“The Assumption of the Virgin”, “Ecce Homo”, “Christ in the sepulcher” and scenes from Moliere’s works and “Don Quixote”) [Benezit VI, 114-115]

Auguste Jourdain (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Jourdain worked for the illustrated journal "L'Illustration" engraving reproductions after great painting masters. In 1863, he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VI, 115]

William Kent (Yorkshire, 1684 – London, 1748): History, portrait and architecture painter, engraver, designer and architect. As painter and designer, he was not very much talented, but he had a wide influence on English liking. He did some architectural designs and illustrations for the works of Pope, Spencer and Gay; these illustrations are not too much worthy. His most well-known design is this Cervantes’ portrait. Circa 1704, he began to work in London as a landscape and portraits painter. In 1710, he travelled to Rome, where he would return twice (the third time in 1730). Definitely established in London in 1719, he received sir Richard Walpole and lord Burlington’s protection. For lord Burlington, Kent worked as an architect, designed and built furniture and temples on a classical theme and also continued with his painting. As an architect, he became quite fashionable. Kent's finest architectural work is undoubtedly Holkham Hall, built for the Earl of Leicester in the Palladian style. Architecture then included more than simple house design, and Kent was involved in the creation of interior fittings and furnishings, most designed in an ebullient Baroque fashion. However, it is not as an architect that Kent is famous, but as the father of the "picturesque", or English landscape garden. Yet Kent was no horticulturalist, he envisioned the landscape as a classical painting, carefully arranged to maximize the artistic effects of light, shape and color. His gardens were dotted with classical temples replete with philosophical associations. Kent's most important gardening creations were at Stowe, Rousham, and Chiswick House. He was appointed court architect and first painter, and also was in charge of Royal Painting Collection conservation. He was buried at lord Burlington’s castle in Chiswick ( [Benezit 1976, VI, 195]

Thomas Kirk (c. 1765 – 1797): History and genre painter, portraitist, miniaturist, engraver and illustrator. Kirk, a pupil of Richard Cosway, exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1785 and 1795 and created many famous engravings based either upon his own work or based on works by (among others) Angelica Kauffmann, Richard Westall or Sir Joshua Reynolds. He was a very noted painter and his history and genre paintings were quite successful. He was a very talented illustrator too and his engravings haven’t got less quality. However, his career was cut short through illness. Working to the end, he died in 1797 of consumption (tuberculosis), just three years after being elected to the Academy of London [Benezit VI, 225]

J. Kjerrulf (19th century): Wood engraver working in Stockholm around 1857.

F. Kjerrulf (19th century): Wood engraver working in Stockholm around 1857.

C. Knight (ending of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): English miniaturist and stipple engraver who worked in London; between 1793 and 1816 he exposed at the Royal Academy. Some of his stipple engravings are R. Westall’s “Haymakers in a storm” (1798), a portrait of “Stefano Egidio Petroni” (1823) and some plates after F. Wheathey’s paintings [Benezit VI, 253]

W. O. Knight (British, 19th century): Copper engraver.

Adolf van der Laan (Utrecht, 1684 or 1690 - a.1755): Dutch engraver and designer. We worked for a long time in Paris, and Jan Punt studied under him. He engraved after J. Glauber and Van der Meulen. [Bénézit (1999): VIII, 107.]

Lacoste, father and sons (working in Paris between c.1830 - 1840): Wood engravers. They worked for several illustrated editions and exposed in the Salon. One of the sons signs as Lacoste "Jeune" ("the young") [Benezit VI, 361]

Lacoste Jeune (working in Paris between c.1830 - 1840): Belonging to a family of wood engravers. They worked for several illustrated editions and exposed in the Salon. One of the sons signs as Lacoste "Jeune" ("the young") [Benezit VI, 361]

J. G. Lafuente (Zaragoza, 19th century): Spanish engraver working in Zaragoza c. 1830.

Jacques Lagniet (France, c. 1600/20 - 1675): French engraver, illustrator, and editor.

C. D. Laing (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

Aglaé Laisné (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver and illustrator. As an engraver, he took part in Edouard Foucaud’s “Les Artisans Illustres” (1841) and in one edition of Shakespeare’s works. He also worked for the “Journal de la jeunesse” engraving vignettes [Benezit VI, 390]

Adolphe Lalauze (Rive-de-Gier, 1838 - Milly, 1906): Illustrator and engraver. Lalauze studied at the School of Fine Arts in Toulouse and, encouraged by one of his professors, Léon Gaucherel, he continued his formation as engraver. In 1872 he made his debut at the Salon, being awarded a third class medal in 1876, a second class medal in 1878 and a medal of bronze in 1889 during the Universal Exhibition. He was also elected Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. Lalauze, who achieved a great fame as a skilful vignettist, illustrated several books and novels, such as Théophile Gautier’s Jean et Jeannette (1894), Goldsmith’s Vicaire de Wakefield (1893) or Jacques Cazotte’s Le Diable Amoureux (1883) [Benezit VI, 393]

B. Lane (British, 19th century): Copper engraver.

Jacques-Adrien Lavieille (Paris, 1818 – Paris, 1862): Wood engraver. He was brother of the painter Eugène Lavieille (Paris, 1820 – Paris, 1889). He has been considered as one of the best wood engraver in the 1830’s. He received his artistical instruction in the “Ecole des Beaux-Arts”, where he met Tony Johannot; Porret was his master. In 1837, he traveled to England, where he worked for chez Williams; then, he returned to France and worked for several illustrated magazines as “L’Artiste” or “Magasin pittoresque”. In 1842, Lavieille accompanied Horace Vernet to Russia and there he was offered to be a professor in the Academy of Saint Petersburg, but he rejected it. He engraved for “Romans d’Eugène Sue”, “Les Faits mémorables de l’Histoire de France” (1845), Dore’s designs for Balzac’s “Les Contes dròlatiques”, Ch. Jacques’ designs for an album of rustic subjects and “Les quatre parties du jour” after J. F. Millet. Lavieille, who met some of the Barbizon masters, exposed in the Salon between 1848 and 1859 and he was awarded with a medal in 1849 and 1859 [Benezit VI, 492]

Hippolyte Lavoignat (Laon, 19th century - ¿?): Engraver and landscape painter. Between 1841 and 1859 he exposed in the Salon. He was one of the best known wood engravers c. 1830, being especially successful engraving designs after Meissonier, Dauzats, Descamps or Raffet [Benezit VI, 493]

Jacques-Philippe Le Bas (Paris, 1707 – Paris, 1783): Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. Le Bas, Hérrisset’s disciple, engraved religious, historical and genre scenes, portraits, coats of arms and landscapes. Member of the Academy since 1734, he exposed at the Salon between 1737 and 1781 [Benezit VI, 502]

Leblanc and Trautman (18th-19th centuries): Engravers and printers.

Jean-Eugène Leclère (Paris, 19th century - ¿?): French wood engraver. He exposed in the Salon in 1863 [Benezit VI, 519]

Lefêvre Jne. (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator and engraver.

Paul Legrand (France, 18th – 19th centuries) [AKA: Paul Le Grand]: Burin engraver. Legrand engraved landscapes, book illustrations and portraits of actors [Benezit VI, 545]

Lejeune (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Lejeune engraved two plates after Choquet’s designs for Don Quixote edition of Paris: Delongchamps, 1824.

François-Bernard Lépicié (Paris, 1698 - Paris, 1755): French engraver, part of a French family of artists. François-Bernard Lépicié was an engraver who became secretary and historiographer of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, in which capacity he compiled a catalogue of the paintings in the French royal collection and an important set of lives of the Premiers Peintres du Roi. His wife, Renée-Elisabeth Lépicié (née Marlie; 1714-73), was also an engraver, signing a number of plates after François Boucher, Jean-Siméon Chardin, Noël Hallé and other artists. Their son Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié (1735-1784) was a painter specializing in large historical and religious canvases, although he is perhaps best known for his charming small-scale genre scenes. François-Bernard Lépicié trained as an engraver under Jean Mariette and Gaspard Duchange and before 1724 visited London, where with Claude Dubosc (fl 1711-40) and Nicolas-Dauphin de Beauvais (1687-1763) he engraved the Raphael cartoons of the Acts of the Apostles at Hampton Court. In 1724 he returned to Paris, where he contributed to some major collections of engravings, including the famous Recueil Crozat (1729), but devoted himself mainly to interpreting the paintings of such contemporaries as Rosalba Carriera, Jean-Baptiste Pater, Jean-Marc Nattier and above all Charles-Antoine Coypel. Among his early prints are Spring after Rosalba and the Coquettish Widow after Coypel. He was approved (agréé) at the Académie Royale in 1734, but he did not deliver his morceau de réception, a portrait of Nicolas Bertin after Jacques-François de Lyen (1684-1761), until 1740, when he was received (reçu) as a full member. It was the support of Coypel and of Philibert Orry, then Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi, whose portrait after Hyacinthe Rigaud Lépicié engraved in 1737, that ensured his election as Secrétaire Historiographe (permanent secretary and official historian) to the Académie Royale on 26 April 1737. []

Jean Marie Leroux (Paris, 1788 – Paris, 1870): Engraver. Leroux, David’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1819 and 1855. He was awarded in 1824 (second class medal), 1831 (first class medal) and 1838 (Légion d’Honneur) [Benezit VI, 605]

Etienne Frédéric Lignon (Paris, 1779 – Paris, 1833): Engraver. Lignon, Morel’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1810 and 1833, where he was awarded in 1810 and 1819. He engraved portraits and paintings after Italian masters [Benezit VI, 663]

William James Linton (London, 1812 - Hamden, 1897): Linton was apprenticed to the wood-engraver George Wilmot Bonner (1796–1836). His earliest known work is to be found in Martin and Westall's Pictorial Illustrations of the Bible (1833). He rapidly rose to a place amongst the foremost wood-engravers of the time. After working as a journeyman engraver with two or three firms, losing his money over a cheap political library called the "National," and writing a life of Thomas Paine, he went into partnership in 1842 with John Orrin Smith. The firm was immediately employed on the Illustrated London News, just then projected. The following year Orrin Smith died, and Linton, who had married a sister of Thomas Wade, editor of Bell's Weekly Messenger, found himself in sole charge of a business upon which two families were dependent. In 1852 he also printed for private circulation an anonymous volume of poems entitled The Plaint of Freedom. After the failure of his paper he returned to his proper work of wood-engraving. In 1857 his wife died, and in the following year he married Eliza Lynn (afterwards known as Mrs Lynn Linton) and returned to London. In 1864 he retired to Brantwood, his wife remaining in London. In 1867, pressed by financial difficulties, he determined to try his fortune in America, and finally separated from his wife. He settled at Appledore, Hamden, Connecticut, where he set up a printing-press. []

Andrew Longacre (Philadelphia, c1831 - ?): Wood engraver. Son of James Barton Longacre (1794-1869), line and stipple engraver and portrait painter.

Matthias Reiff Longacre (Montgomery County, 1836 - ?): Wood engraver and draftsman. At he age of 17 Longacre was apprenticed to a Philadelphia wood engraver and two years later we went out to Cincinnati for a year. He then went to NYC, worked a short time for Harper's and Leslie's magazines, and about 1858 established his own business. During the Civil War he was military storekeeper at Baton Rouge. After the war he had an engraving and lithography business in Philadelphia for some years, but later he became a plumber and made drawings of industrial plants. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 402]

Tomás López (Madrid, 1730 – 1802): Carthographer. Tomás López de Vargas Machuca was Cartógrafo de los Dominios de Su Majestad since 1770. He was also a member of the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (1764) and of the Royal Academy of History (1776). He is the author of Principios geográficos aplicados al uso de los mapas.

Tomás López Enguídanos (Valencia, c. 1760 – Madrid, c. 1812): López Enguídanos studied at San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia and at San Fernando Royal Academy of Madrid. He was awarded in 1781 and 1784, becoming an academician of San Carlos Academy. In 1804, he was appointed “Grabador de Cámara Honorario”, engraving the portraits of Godoy and Fernando VII. His works as an illustrator and as an engraver are remarkable, such as Views of the Spanish Ports (1785) and Views of El Escorial (1800 – 1807). His brother, José López Enguídanos (1760 – 1812), painted the portrait of Cervantes for Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 – 1798 Don Quixote edition. [Benezit VI, 735]

José López Enguídanos (Valencia, 1760 – Madrid, 1812): Painter of History and genre scenes and engraver. José López Enguídanos, brother of the burin engraver Tomás López Enguídanos, designed the portrait of Cervantes for Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1797 – 1798 Don Quixote edition. He also engraved several portraits for the collection of Españoles Ilustres [Benezit VI, 735]

Casper Luyken (1672 - 1708): Casper Luyken was the eldest of the five children born to Jan Luyken and Maria de Ouden. Unfortunately, he was the only one to reach adulthood. All the other children died at an early age. Casper learned the trade of book illustrator from his father. At the age of about sixteen, he was skilled enough to help his father with engravings. His first illustrations appeared in the book Romeynschen Adelaer (1689) by Dirck Pietersz. Pers. From that time on, father and son worked together. Once Casper started for himself he preferred working for other clients than his father's. But he made an exception for Jan ten Hoorn, his father's biggest client. Both Casper and Jan Luyken went on working for him. Casper probably left for Germany in 1699. There he worked mainly for the engraver and art dealer Christoph Weigel in Nürnberg. One of Weigel’s major publications is the so-called Ständebuch of 1698, with prints of more than 200 crafts. Many of these were already existing illustrations taken from Het Menselyk Bedrijf but the Luykens also made some especially for this publication. In 1704, Casper returned to the Netherlands, much to his father's delight. In the following year, he married Maria Elisabeth van Aken, with whom he had a son named Jan.

E. Mackenzie (19th century): Stipple engraver. Mackenzie moved from England to America about 1833 to engrave portraits for Longacre and Herring's National Portrait Gallery. He was later employed by the Methodist Book Concern in New York City. Mackenzie's initial may be "E" or "F". [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 415]

Antonio Manchón Quílez (Xátiva, 1836 - ?): Illustrator and wood engraver (fl. 1862-1876). Machón worked for El Museo Universal engraving “Una Churra en trage de fiesta yendo al baile” [Madrid, 1869]

Guido Manes (Prague, 1828 - Prague, 1880) [AKA: Kuido Manes; Quida Manesa]: Painter, illustrator and engraver. Son of Anton Manes and a disciple of Ruben at the Academy in Prague and of Vautier in Düsseldorf. He exhibited in Viena in 1838 and Paris in 1878. [Benezit VII, 133-134]

Víctor Manzano y Mejorada (Madrid, 1831 - 1865): Spanish painter and engraver. Víctor Manzano was instructed at the Escuela de Bellas de San Fernando under Ceferino Araujo, Joaquín Espalter, and Federico de Madrazo; later, he became a professor of elementary education in this same institution. He traveled to Rome and Paris, where he worked in Picot's studio. Back in Madrid, he made a series of works that he presented at the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes. His Last Moments of Cervantes was awarded a third prize in 1858, and the painting Rodrígez Vázquez visitando la cárcel donde estaba encerrada la familia de Antonio Pérez a second prize in 1862. In the 1860s he practiced etching and collaborated in the illustration of the magazine El Arte en España. He was appointed Infante don Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón's court painter, and cultivated History and portrait painting.

Jacques Marchand (Paris, 1769 - ¿?): Designer and engraver. Marchand was specialized in burin engraving, stipple engraving and crayon manner. He was a disciple of the burin engraver François Godefroy (Rouen, 1743 – Paris, 1819). Marchand engraved History scenes and portraits (one of “Napoleon”) and, between 1798 and 1810, he exposed at the Salon [Benezit VII, 163]

A. Martí (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Martín (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1880.

D. Martínez (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

José Martínez de Castro (Working in Madrid since 1800): Engraver. Martínez de Castro engraved illustrations for Quevedo’s poetry book [Benezit VII, 222]

Masferrer (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver. Masferrer engraved some plates for Don Quixote edition of Barcelona: Viuda e hijos de Gorchs, 1832.

Louis-Joseph Masquelier l’aîné (Cysoing près de Lille, 1741 – Paris, 1811): Engraver. He was a disciple of Jacques-Philippe Le Bas. Between 1793 and 1803, he exposed at the Salon and, in 1802, he won a second class medal. He engraved plates for “Voyage en Italie” (after Saint-Non’s designs), for Ovid’s “Metamorphoses”, for “Les tableaux de la Suisse” and for “Voyage de La Pérousse”. He was one of the chosen engravers to make the engravings sent to the Chinese Emperor (1761 – 1774). Masquelier’s plates for “Tableaux, Statues, Bas-Reliefs et Cames, de la Galerie de Florence et du Palais Pitti (with 200 fine engravings by Masquelier, Mansard, Marais, Pauquet and others after drawings by Jean-Baptiste Wicar) are remarkable [Benezit VII, 240]

Massuet (ending of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): Map engraver working in Paris c. 1821.

Mathey (Paris, 18th century): Burin engraver working in Paris around 1732.

Bartolomé Maura y Montaner (Palma de Mallorca, 1844 – Madrid, 1926) [AKA: Bartolomé Maura y Muntaner]: Painter and engraver. Maura worked as an engraver for the Fábrica Nacional de la Moneda y Timbre. In 1877, he engraved Eduardo Rosales’ painting El Testamento de Isabel La Católica. In 1892, Maura engraved a medal to commemorate the IV centenary of the America discovery; this medal was awarded by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando [Benezit VII, 275]

Charles Maurand (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Maurand was a disciple of Claude-Nicolas-Eugèns Guillaumot (Paris, 1813 - ?, 1869). He exhibited at the Salon between 1863 and 1881 [Benezit VII, 275]

Théodore Maurisset (working in Paris between 1834 and 1859): Painter, engraver, lithographer and caricaturist [Benezit VII, 277]

Edmond Joseph Charles Meunier (Colombes, 19th century): Wood engraver. Meunier, a disciple of Eugène Meunier, exhibited at the Salon between 1874 and 1878 [Benezit VII, 368]

Michelet (Paris, 19th century): French engraver working in Paris around 1883.

Midderigh (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris between 1848 and 1870 [Benezit VII, 397]

Adrien Jacques Antoine Migneret (Paris, 1786 – Paris, 1840): Engraver. Migneret, a disciple of Renault and Langlois, exhibited at the Salon between 1817 and 1835, being awarded a medal in 1817 [Benezit VII, 408]

Miguel de la Cuesta (18th century): Designer and engraver working in Madrid around 1780.

M. Miiller (France, 19th century) [AKA: Müller]: Wood engraver working in Paris around 1880.

Millet (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836-37.

R. Milliet (19th century): Wood-engraver. Milliet worked for the Ilustración Española y Americana.

John Mills (London, 18th-19th century): Genre and History painter, portraitist and burin engraver [Benezit VII, 424]

Thomas Milton (c. 1743 – Bristol, 1827): Engraver and landscape painter. Thomas Milton, William Woollett’s disciple (1735 – 1785), worked in London and Dublin, where he prepared 24 plates for Views of Seats of Ireland. He was the president of the Association of Engravers and engraved several plates for an edition of Shakespeare [Benezit VII, 426]

Juan Minguet (Barcelona, 1737 - ¿?): Burin engraver in Madrid [Benezit VII, 429]

Minne (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1863.

Francisco Miranda (End of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): Engraver working in Madrid around 1804.

James Mitan (London, 1776 - ¿?, 1822): Engraver and architect. He was a disciple of Agar and Chuseman and he also studied at the Royal Academy. Mitan was a skilful engraver of numerous vignettes. He was master of William Finden [Benezit VII, 439]

Pedro Pascual Moles (Valencia, 1741 – Barcelona, 1797): Painter and burin engraver. He studied in Madrid and Paris, where he was a disciple of Nicholas Gabriel Dupuis, French painter. In 1755, he exposed at the Salon. Moles engraved allegorical and religious scenes [Benezit VII, 462]

Monceau (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Monceau engraved a plate after Choquet’s design for Don Quixote edition of Paris: Delongchamps, 1824 [A141]

Manuel Monfort y Asensi (Valencia, 1736 – Valencia, 1806): Engraver. Manuel Monfort was one of the best Valencian engravers in the 18th century. He established the School of Engraving in the University of Valencia and became director of San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia) and academician of San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). It is well-known his engraving about the allegory of the Fine Arts. The Valencian engraver Simón Brandi was a disciple of his.

Monogram N V R (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1880.

Monogram P Z (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1880.

Juan Moreno Tejada (worked in Madrid between 1780 and 1810): Burin engraver. He engraved some plates for the Spanish Royal Academy edition of “Don Quixote” (Madrid: Ibarra, 1780) and for that of Madrid: Sancha, 1797-1798. He usually engraved portraits and views. He also engraved some plates for “Historia de la Conquista de México” (Madrid, 1783) [Benezit VII, 535]

Edmond Morin (Havre, 1824 - Sceaux, 1882): Influential nineteenth century French etcher, lithographer, wood engraver and illustrator. Edmond Morin studied art in Paris in the studio of Gleyre. Shortly after completing his education Morin left Paris for London and remained in that city for eight years (1849-1857). During his London years the artist achieved a large reputation for both his illustrations and wood engravings in such major publications as The Illustrated London News and Pen and Pencil. Morin returned to Paris in 1857 and immediately began exhibiting his art at the Salon. During the following years Edmond Morin frequently contributed art to such journals as Magasin pittoresque, l'Illustration, le Monde illustre and La Vie parisienne. He also illustrated such books as L'Hotel des Haricots (1864), Paris-guide (1867) and Monsieur, Madame et bebe (1878). Although a fine landscape and portrait artist, Edmond Morin became most famous for his scenes of everyday life. In this area his splendid ability to capture a moment in time has led some scholars to link his with his Impressionist contemporaries. [Benezit VII, 543-544]

Eugène Mouard (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Mouard, disciple of Henri Brown, exhibited at the Salon between 1859 and 1869 [Benezit VII, 571]

Hans Alexander Mueller (Nordhausen, 1888 – 1962) [AKA: Hans Alexander Müller]: Designer and wood engraver. Mueller was a disciple of the Academy for Graphic Arts of Leipzig and then, after World War I, a professor of woodcutting and engraving at the same institution. He emigrated to the US before World War II, becoming a notable book illustrator. His illustrated books include Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island and Cervantes’ Don Quixote [Benezit VII, 592]

M. Müllera (): Wood engraver working in Prague around 1866.

Johann Sebastien Müller (Nuremberg, 1715 – London, after 1785) [AKA: John Müller; John Miller]: Painter, designer and burin engraver. Müller, Weigel and Tyroff’s disciple, worked in England since 1744 and, since 1760, for Boydell. He engraved Van der Neer and Claude Lorrain’s landscapes and religious scenes after Murillo, Barrocci and Le Sueur. He also engraved Hayman’s designs for Newton’s edition of Milton [Benezit VII, 595]

M Müllera (19th century): Wood engraver working in Prague around 1866.

P. Mullor (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

Francisco Muntaner (Palma, 1743 – Madrid, 1805) [AKA: Francisco Montaner]: Portrait and religious scenes engraver [Benezit VII, 496]

Felician de Myrbach-Rheinfeld (Zaleszychi, 1853 – Klagenfurt, 1940) [AKA: Felician Baron de Myrbach-Rheinfeld]: History painter, engraver and illustrator. He made his debut in Vienna in 1877 and, four years later, in 1881, he moved to Paris, where he collaborated with notable illustrators and became a talented and modern illustrator. He illustrated, among other works, François Coppée’s Oeuvres Complètes (1864-1887 ; 1 frontispiece and 300 designs), Edmond About’s Tolla (1889) and Adalbert von Chamisso’s Peter Schlémihl. In 1900, during the Universal Exhibition, he was awarded a golden medal [Benezit: 1976, VII, 632]

Célestin François Nanteuil-Leboeuf (Rome, 1813 – Marlotte, 1873): Genre painter, designer engraver, acquafortist and lithographer. Nanteuil-Leboeuf was a youthful prodigy, developing a personal and recognizable style quite early on; when he was only 17 years old, he illustrated with lithographs Vogel’s L’Ange déchu, already showing his famous “tachiste” style. Originally a student of Ingres in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of Langlois, he was clearly a Romantic. His illustrations for Renduel’s edition of Victor Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris (1836) are very remarkable; Nanteuil was a close friend of this writer. His style was very appropriate for illustrating the imaginative creations of Romantic poets and writers. In 1867, he became Director of the Academy of Fine Arts and, in 1869, he was awarded with the Légion d’honneur. He, perhaps, is best known today for his numerous and very effective lithographs [Benezit VII, 650-651]

James Neagle (London, c. 1760 – Philadelphia, 1822): Burin engraver. He took part in John Boydell’s “Shakespeare Gallery” (set of 97 engravings by different engravers), engraved plates for Murphy’s “Arabian antiquities of Spain” (1816) and engraved Woolley and Smirke’s designs. He engraved religious scenes too [Benezit VII, 670]

Samuel John Neele (1758 – 1824): Burin engraver. Neele was a prolific English engraver specialized in geographic charts, ancient maps and views. He worked in London (Strand).

G. V. Neist (18th century): Copper engraver working in London around 1761.

Otto Neussel (19th century): Geographer and engraver. Neussel engraved many of the maps for Atlas Geográfico Universal bajo la Dirección del Dr. D. Juan Vilanova y Piera published by Astort Hermanos (Madrid, 1877). He was Socio de número de la Sociedad Geográfica de Madrid, Socio Honorario de la Sociedad de Escritores y Artistas and Caballero de la Real y Distinguida Orden de Carlos III. On March 8, 1892, he gave the lecture Los cuatro viajes de Cristobal Colón para descubir el Nuevo Mundo según los manuscritos de Fr. Bartolomé de las Casas at the Society of Geography.

Carlo Nicco (Torino, 1883 - 1973) [AKA: Carlo Emilio Nicco]: Designer, painter, engraver, and illustrator. Carlo Nicco began to work as a wood engraver; later, formed as a lithographer, he became a poster designer for cinema and theater. He directed Cuor d'oro, a juvenile magazine (1921-24), and collaborated with Numero, La Lettura, Il Corriere dei Piccoli, and La Festa. He illustrated around 150 books, mainly for editors in Piamonte (U.T.E.T., Lattes, SEI, Paravia).

Marcel North (Dorking Surrey, England, 1909 - 1990): Marcel North was a designer, water-colorist, engraver, illustrator, writer, and columnist. He was quite influenced by Cubism.

Pierre Noury (Besançon, 1894 - ?): Painter, engraver and illustrator. Noury, disciple of Jean Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian in Paris, exhibited at the Salon of French Artists and at the Salon of Autumn since 1920. He also exhibited at the Salon of the Independents and at the Salon of the Tuileries and took part in other exhibitions in Boston, London, Tokyo and Vienna. In 1925, during the Salon of Decorative Arts, he was awarded a silver medal. Noury designed the costumes and sets for Le Flem’s opera Le Rossignol de Saint-Malo and he also illustrated several books; many of them were young readers' editions for the editor Ernest Flammarion: Andersen's Contes, Grimm's Contes, Contes des Mille et une nuits, Perrault's Contes, La Fontaine's Fables, Swift's Gulliver à Lilliput, Beecher-Stowe's La case de l'oncle Tom, Wyss' Le Robinson suisse and Daniel de Foë's Robinson Crusoé. Noury wrote a History of painting too [Benezit VII, 759]

Francesco Novelli “the elder” (Venice, 1767 – Venice, 1836): Engraver, painter and designer. He was son and disciple of Pietro Antonio III Novelli. Francesco Novelli worked at the Academy of Venice and at the Academy of Rome. He copied with excellent talent Rembrandt’s etchings. His perfects copies can be confused with the originals. He engraved designs after Mantegna too. Novelli was member of different academies. His son, Francesco Novelli, was an engraver too [Benezit VII, 761]

Diego de Obregón (17th century): Painter and engraver. Obregón, disciple of his father, Pedro de Obregón “the young”, worked in Madrid as an illustrator for religious books; also books about birds and plants. His brother, Marcos de Obregón, was an engraver too. Diego de Obregón was the first Spanish illustrator of Don Quixote [Benezit VII, 775]

John William Orr (Ireland, 1815 – New York, 1887): Sculptor and engraver. Orr engraved some illustrations for “The Illustrated Shakespeare” (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1847) [Benezit VIII, 36]

Nathaniel Orr (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver. He was probably a younger brother of John William Orr. Nathaniel and his brother got their start in NYC in 1844 and worked together at least until 1846. In 1848 Nathaniel was in partnership with James H. Richardson, but thereafter he worked independently. During the fifties he was one of the leading wood engravers in the country and his work appeared in many books and periodicals of the time. [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 479.]

Roberto J. Páez (Buenos Aires, 1930 -): Draftsman and engraver. Roberto J. Páez studied at the Prilidiano Pueyrredón National School of Fine Arts, graduating as a Professor of Printmaking. In 1965, he won the International Competition of the University of Buenos Aires Editorial to illustrate a special edition of Don Quixote, a work that gave him worldwide fame. He has also illustrated books by Jorge Luis Borges, an edition of Martín Fierro, and Lucio V. Mansilla's A Trip to the Indians Ranqueles. He was a Professor and Director of the School of Fine Arts of Catamarca, the Industrial School of Graphic Arts, and the Carlos Morel School of Fine Arts (Quilmes, Buenos Aires Province). He was awarded a first prize at the II Biennale of Sacred Art in the specialty of engraving (1954), the Olivetti Award Hall in the Salón de Dibujantes (1962), and the Konex Award for Engraving (1982).

Juan Fernando Palomino (¿? – Madrid, 1793): Burin engraver. He was son and disciple of Juan Bernabé Palomino (1692 – 1777), engraver and painter. Juan Fernando Palomino was named “Individuo de mérito” by San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) [Benezit VIII, 100]

Adolphe François Pannemaker (Brussels, 1822 – Paris, 1900): Wood engraver. Pannemaker studied under Henry Brown at the Ecole Royale de Gravure of Brussels since 1836, but he completed his formation in Paris in 1843. In 1845 he returned to Brussels and he finished the illustrations for L’Histoire Populaire de Belgique. His son, Stéphane Pannemaker, was born in 1847; he would also be a wood engraver and co-work with his father. Back in Paris in 1855, where he settled definitely, he exhibited at the Salon since that year, becoming a successful engraver of book illustrations. He has been considered as one of the best engravers of Dore’s designs, but also the favorite engraver of Théophile Schuler. He engraved, among other important works, the illustrations for Jules Verne’s Voyages Extraordinaires. Several well-known engravers were formed under Adolphe François Pannemaker, creating an important school of disciples not only in France but also in Russia [Benezit VIII, 107;]

Stéphane Pannemaker (Brussels, 1847 – Paris, 1930): Wood engraver and painter. Stéphane Pannemaker, son of the engraver Adolphe François Pannemaker –with whom he co-worked–, settled with his family in Paris in 1755, entering the National School of Paris. In 1861 he began to engrave under his father’s direction, making his debut at the Salon in 1874. Since 1880 he taught wood engraving at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts and in 1883 he became a member of the Société des Artistes français. In 1881 he received the Légion d’honneur and in 1900 he was awarded a bronze medal at the Universal Exhibition. As his father, he also engraved Doré’s designs [Benezit VIII, 107;]

Manuel Pantaleón Pérez (Valencia, 19th century – ?): Engraver. He exhibited at the Salon and, in 1888, was awarded with a “mention honorable” [Benezit VIII, 219]

Ch. Paquin (working in Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Paquin worked in Paris c. 1858 as an engraver of illustrations.

Luis Paret y Alcázar (Madrid, 1746 – Madrid, 1799): Painter, academician and engraver. He had an excellent classical education, which he completed studying oriental languages. He was instructed by Antonio González Velázquez, as Agustín Navarro was too, and, in Paris, by Charles-François de la Traverse, Boucher’s disciple. After diverse study travels to Italy, Netherlands and France, he took up residence in Madrid. Paret received several prizes from San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid), of which he became a member. By order of Carlos III, he painted the ports of Spain and the most picturesque points of Spanish maritime border. He also designed numerous and remarkable illustrations and frontispieces. His style follows Watteau, Pannini and Longhi; it is agile, delicate, quick and mannerist, appropriate to Spanish Borbons’ liking. Benezit indicates that Paret made a remarkable series of illustrations for “Don Quixote” that never was engraved. He took part in Madrid: Sancha, 1797 – 1798 and Madrid: Sancha, 1798 – 1799; for this last edition, health problems prevented Paret from finishing the whole series, so it was completed by Francisco Alcántara [Benezit VIII, 125; Lenaghan 247-256]

Paris (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Hermann Paul (Paris, 1874 – Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, 1940): Painter, engraver and designer. Hermann Renè Georges, Hermann-Paul, was an artist of considerable scope. He was a well-known illustrator whose work appeared in numerous newspapers and periodicals. His fine art was displayed in gallery exhibitions alongside Vuillard, Matisse and Toulouse-Lautrec. Early works were noted for their satiric characterizations of the foibles of French society. His points were made with simple caricature. His illustrations relied on blotches of pure black with minimum outline to define his animated marionettes. His exhibition pieces were carried by large splashes of color and those same fine lines of black. Hermann-Paul worked in ripolin, watercolors, woodcuts, lithographs, drypoint engraving, oils, and ink. On the eve of the First World War, he made quite an impression as part of M. Druet's "First Group." As noted by the Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, the exhibition was "chiefly remarkable for a series of paintings or drawings - it is hard to say which - by M. Hermann-Paul in a new medium which is simply ripolin". The Great War soon intervened and Hermann-Paul would document its tragedy as well as its foibles. After the war, woodcuts, both used as fine arts prints and as illustrations for books become his media of predilection. Despite a large number of reproductive illustrations for Candide, Hermann-Paul became mostly a fine artist after 1920. His inspirations become more literary than journalistic and his style evolved from a belle époque line to a modernist simplification. It is unjust to just list a few publications, as so many of Hermann-Paul's woodcut illustrations from the 1920s and 30s deserve praise, however one should particularly mention La Génèse (Léon Pichon, Paris – France, 1921), Oeuvres de François Villon (Léon Pichon, Paris – France, 1922), Douze Dessins pour l’Amour de Goya (Editions du Balancier, Liege – Belgium, 1932), and Don Quichotte (Editions du Balancier, Liege – Belgium, 1932) [Benezit V, 506]

Pierre Pelée (Courtedoux, Switzerland, 1801 – Paris, 1871): Burin engraver. Pelée was a disciple of N.-S. Schenker and he exhibited at the Salon of Paris since 1827 until 1866. In 1831 he was awarded a third class medal. He engraved portraits and religious scenes mainly [Benezit VIII, 194]

Manuel Peleguer y Tossar (Sevilla, 1759 – ?, 1831): Engraver and medalist. Peleguer worked in Valencia between 1782 and 1812 and, in 1802, he became director of San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts [Benezit VIII, 194]

Johann Georg Penzel (Hersbrucken, 1754 – Leipzig, 1804): Painter, designer and engraver. Johann Georg Penzel studied under Schellenberg in Winterthur and, later, in Dresden. He worked mainly as an engraver for book sellers, engraving designs by Chodowiecki, Ramberg and Schellenberg. He also made his own designs, which are considered of high quality [Benezit VIII, 210]

Paul Perrichon (Paris, 19th century): Paul Perrichon, disciple of Laveille, engraved History and religious subjects. Between 1866 and 1870 he exhibited at the Salon [Benezit VIII, 234]

Georges Léon Alfred Perrichon (Paris, ? – Audeville, 1907): Genre and landscape painter and engraver. Perrichon, a disciple of Justin Lequien, Lassalle and Laveille, made his debut at the Salon in 1864, being awarded an Honorific Mention in 1881 [Benezit VIII, 234]

E. Petit (Paris, 19th century): Illustrator (and engraver?) working in Paris around 1883.

Petite (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

E. Peupin (Rue, 19th century - ¿?): Wood engraver. Until c. 1850 he worked in Paris, then, in Leipzig [Benezit VIII, 267]

Johann Baptist Pfitzer (Ehrenbretstein, Germany, 1789 - ?): Burin engraver. Pfitzer, J. A. Klauber’s disciple, worked in Vienna and Paris until 1829 [Benezit VIII, 277]

J. Phillibrown (London, 19th century): Engraver. J. Phillibrown re-engraved some of Smirke´s designs for Don Quixote edition of London: Charles Daly, c.1830. He is an excellent steel engraver. Thomas Phillibrown (working in London c. 1834; then in EEUU) maybe was a relative of him (brothers?); he was a steel engraver too.

Antoine Alphée Piaud (Saint-Etienne, 19th century - ¿?): Wood engraver and painter. Piaud worked in Paris between 1836 and 1866. Between 1837 and 1852 he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VIII, 291]

Bernard Picart (Paris, 1673 – Amsterdam, 1733) [AKA: Bernard Picard]: Burin and wood engraver, designer and miniaturist. Picart studied drawing at the Académie Royale and was instructed in engraving by his father, Etienne Picart “le Romain” (1632 – 1721), Benoît Audran and, after 1687, by Sébastien Leclerc. His first signed engraving was the “Hermaphrodite” (1693) after Poussin. In 1696 he left France. The Antwerp Academy awarded Picart a prize for drawing, and he executed several engravings there, before moving in 1696 to the Netherlands, where he worked mainly on book illustration. At the end of that year, he returned to France, but, in 1710, he was back in The Haye and settled in Amsterdam the following year, converting to the Protestant faith. His designs are elegant and precise, synthesis of Dutch and French likings. He is the most remarkable Dutch engraver in the first third of the 18th century [Benezit VIII, 296]

François Pierdon (Saint-Gérard-le-Puy, 1821 - 1904): Genre and landscape painter and engraver. Pierdon, disciple of Hanoteau, made his debut at the Salon in 1853. His engravings for Alexandre Dumas’ novels were well-known [Benezit VIII, 314]

Charles Henri Pille (Essonnes, 1844 – Paris, 1897): History and genre painter, portraitist, designer and engraver. Pille, a disciple of Barrias, made his debut at the Salon of 1865. In 1869 he was awarded, but his first great success was in 1872 with Jean Frédéric électeur de Saxe, continuant sa partie d’échecs au moment ou le duc d’Albe lui annonce sa condamna à mort, awarded a second class medal. In 1882 Pille was decorated as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur and, in 1889, he was awarded a golden medal during the Universal Exhibition. Pille was an excellent portraitist and painter, but he became more successful as an illustrator. His best-known works are the illustrations for Don Quixote, A. de Musset’s Oeuvres complètes and Victor Hugo’s works [Benezit: 1976, VIII, 334-335]

Bartolomeo Pinelli (Rome, 1781 – Rome, 1835): Painter, sculptor in clay, designer and engraver. Bartolomeo Pinelli was one of Ottocento Italy's most popular draftsmen. Living and working primarily in Rome, Pinelli studied at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome and at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna, where he was supported financially by the nephew of Pope Benedict XIV. His first collection of engravings was published in 1809 and represents Raccolta di costumi pittoreschi (50 plates), a very popular set between tourists in Rome of that time. His other famous series were Istoria degli Imperatori (100 plates; 1825) and Seven hills and views of Rome (1827). Pinelli's favorite themes were costumes of classic ages, derived directly from Roman monuments and everyday life of Roman people. He also designed and engraved a great number of illustrations for Eneide (1811), Roman history (1816), Meo Patacca (1823), Divine Comedy (1825-26), Free Jerusalem (1827), Furious Orland (1829), Don Quixote (1833) and others [Benezit VIII, 344]

Piquer (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

Héliodore Joseph Pisan (Marseille, 1822 – Bailly, 1890): Genre, landscape and dead nature painter and engraver. In 1849, he exhibited by the first time in Paris. Pisan worked principally as an engraver for illustrated book. He was awarded as “Chevalier de la Légion d´honneur” [Benezit VIII, 358]

Tomás Planes (Valencia, 1707 - Valencia, c1790): Burin engraver. Tomás Planes engraved several portraits, religious images, and book illustrations. His son, Luis Planes, became a director of the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts in Valencia. [Bénézit: 1999, XI, 48; Villalmanzo, Jesús: "Nuevos datos sobre el grabador Tomás Planes" en Archivo de arte valenciano, 63, 1982 , pp. 69-74. ]

François de Poilly le Jeune (1671-1723): French copper engraver.

Nicolas Jean-Baptiste Poilly (1712 - 1758 (?)): French printer, engraver, draftsman, and book-map seller.

A. Pollet (19th century): French wood engraver. He was brother of Victor Florence Pollet (Paris, 1811 - Mayenne, 1882), history painter and burin engraver [Benezit VIII, 409]

Henri Désiré Porret (Lille, 1800 - ¿?): Wood engraver. In 1827 he took part in the Salon by the first time, exposing in it until 1835. In 1833, he was awarded with a medal [Benezit VIII, 435)]

Paul Potter (19th century): Wood engraver working in Prague around 1866.

Henri Pottin (Paris, 1820 - Paris, 1864) [AKA: Louis Aimé Henri Pottin]: History and genre painter, portraitist, engraver and lithographer. He was a disciple of Tony Johannot and Picot. Between 1845 and 1864 he exposed in the Salon [Benezit VIII, 452]

Jean Achille Pouget (Paris, 19th century): Wood engraver. Pouget, Brévière’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon in 1846 by the first time; then, also in 1877 [Benezit VIII, 453]

Jean François Pourvoyeur (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Pourvoyeur, Jacques Couché’s disciple, made his debut at the Salon of Paris in 1831 and exhibited there until 1845 [Benezit VIII, 458]

William Henry Powis (1808 - 1836): English engraver and illustrator. He became especially successful with his engravings for the "Bible" (1835) [Benezit VIII, 463]

Johann Georg Preisler (Copenhagen, 1757 - Copenhagen, 1831) [AKA: Johann Georg Preissler]: Designer and engraver. He was son and disciple of the burin engraver Johann Martin Preisler (1715 – 1794). Georg Preisler worked at the Academy of Copenhagen and, in 1780, he won a golden medal. In 1781, he traveled to Paris to be instructed by Jean George Will. In 1787, he was named a member of the Royal Academy of Paris and, one year later, he returned to Denmark, where he was nominated for the Academy of Copenhagen. Talented engraver [Benezit VIII, 478]

Zachée Prevost (Paris, 1797 – Paris, 1861): Engraver. Prevost, Regnault’s disciple as Caron, exhibited at the Salon between 1822 and 1857. Since c. 1830 he began to engrave Delacroix’ designs using acquatint. In 1852 he was awarded with the Légion d’honneur [Benezit VIII, 487]

Provost (19th century) [AKA: J. Provost]: J. Provost. Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

Jan Punt (Amsterdam, 1711 – Amsterdam, 1779) [AKA: Johannes Punt]: Painter, designer, burin engraver and actor. Punt was a disciple of A. van der Laan and Jacob de Wet. His engravings mostly consist of book illustrations, theatrical scenes and portraits [Benezit VIII, 524]

John Quartley (Working in Tours between 1835 and 1867): Wood engraver [Benezit VIII, 547]

Quichon (19th century): French wood engraver working in Tours c. 1848.

Luis Quintanilla Isasi (Santander 1893 - Madrid, 1978): Spanish muralist, painter, engraver, illustrator and draftsman. Luis Quinatnilla experienced his first contacts with the arts there through his friend Gerald de Alvear and the brothers Solano. His family moved to Madrid in 1905, where he began his studies of nautical architecture, taking trips to England, Brazil, and then Paris, where he became friends with Juan Gris, and began painting in a Cubist style. Quintanilla returned to Spain in 1915, showing his work in the first and last solo exhibition in Santander. Evolving in his style from a purely cubist language, he returned to Paris in 1920, becoming friends with Modigliani, Vlaminck, and Maeztu, as well as with writer Ernest Hemingway. On a stipend, he traveled to Italy to study painting en plein air, returning to Madrid in 1926. He became a member of the socialist party and got caught up in the tumultuous political events in his country during that time, culminating in his imprisonment in October of 1934 for hosting the revolutionary committee of the October revolt in his studio. With the international intellectual community rallying to his support with protests in the United States, France, and Great Britain, Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos circulating petitions for his immediate release, Quintanilla was released from prison after serving a little over eight months, and was actively involved in the Spanish Civil War which started in July of 1936. During his imprisonment, friends had organized an exhibition of his Madrid street scenes at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York City, which was accompanied by a catalog written by Hemingway and Dos Passos. This was to be followed by an exhibition of his war drawings in 1938 at the Barcelona Ritz-Carlton Hotel and then at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, again accompanied by a catalog written by Ernest Hemingway. He was forced into a long exile at the fall of the Spanish Republic in 1939, first living in New York and then in Paris. A year after the death of General Francisco Franco, Quintanilla returned to Madrid, where he died in 1978.

Antoine Radigues (Paris, 1721 – Saint Petersburg, 1809) [AKA: Anton Radiguez or Radiguer Jacovlévitch]: Engraver. Son of Jacques Vivencien Radigues, engraver in Paris. He lived in England, Holland and Russia. He became a professor of engraving at the Academy in Saint Petersburg. He engraved genre scenes, landscapes and portraits [Benezit VIII, 572]

Antoine Radigues (Paris, 1721 – Saint Petersburg, 1809) [AKA: Anton Radigues; Radiguez; Radiguer Jacovlévitch]: Engraver. Son of Jacques Vivencien Radigues, engraver in Paris. He lived in England, Holland and Russia. He became a professor of engraving at the Academy in Saint Petersburg. He engraved genre scenes, landscapes and portraits [Benezit VIII, 572]

Abraham Raimbach (London, 1776 – Greenwich, 1843): Engraver, acquafortist and miniaturist. He was a disciple of the engraver J. Hall and in the schools of the Royal Academy. He began working as a miniaturist for several booksellers; then, he continued working as an engraver. He engraved illustrations for one edition of “The Thousand and one nights” and, between 1797 and 1805, he exposed some portraits in the Royal Academy [Benezit VIII, 585]

Charles Rambert (working in Paris between 1836 and 1846): Wood engraver. He engraved Grandville’s designs for La Fontaine’s “Fables”.

Rambert (19th century): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1836.

Edmond Joseph Ramus (Paris, 1822 – 1890): Engraver. Ramus made his debut at the French Salon in 1847, being awarded with a golden medal in 1881. Some of his most remarkable works are the portraits of L’Empereur Napoléon III, Impératrice Eugénia, Gambetta and Vice-roi d’Egypte [Benezit VIII, 597-598]

Simon François Ravenet (Paris, 1706 – London, 1774) [AKA: Simon François Ravenet “the old”]: Engraver. Ravenet, Jacques-Philippe Le Bas’ disciple [see La Haye: Pierre de Hondt, 1746], worked successfully in Paris until 1750. Then, he moved to London, maybe called by Hogarth to engrave some designs for “Marriage a la mode”. He also worked for the publisher Boydell. Ravenet was a member of the Artist Society and an associate of the Royal Academy [Benezit VIII, 624]

Rehacka (19th century): Wood engraver working in Prague around 1866.

Imre Reiner (Versec, 1900 - Lugano, 1987): Hungarian-Swiss painter, graphic artist and important Typographer. Imre Reiner attended the National School of Sculpture Zalatua and the School of Art in Frankfurt. From 1921 he studied with Ernst Schneidler at the School of Applied Arts in Stuttgart. Several meetings with Paul Klee in Weimar. From 1923 to 1927 he worked as a graphic designer in London, New York, Chicago and Paris. After his return to Stuttgart he continued to study as a master student at Ernst Schneidler. Imre Reiner in 1930 lived in Paris a year later he moved to Ruvigliana-Lugano (Ticino) and from then worked there as a painter, graphic designer, typographer and illustrator. He designed twelve different type fonts, wrote several books about engraving, type fonts and graphic art, and illustrated more than thirty works by authors such as Cervantes, Voltaire, Aristophanes, John Donne, among others.

Rennoldson (worked in London c. 1760) [AKA: Renoldson]: Burin engraver. He also used the black way. Rennoldson engraved designs by Wale, as the “Portrait of King William II”. He worked for the publisher Alexander Hogg [Benezit VIII, 690]

James H. Richardson (American, mid. 19th century): Wood engraver in New York between 1848-80. He was connected with the firms Orr & Richardson (c. 1848) and Richardson & Cox (1853-59). [Groce, G. C. & Wallace, D. H., The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564 - 1860, 1964, 536.]

Ricord (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

William Ridley (?, 1764 - Addlestone, 1838): Engraver. William Ridley worked in London. He engraved portraits, book illustrations and different designs after Nagler, Beechey, Gainsborough (Thomas Pennart’s portrait), Lawrence, Opie, Reynolds and others. The signature “Ridley” appears in some illustrations of Don Quixote edition of New York: Duyckinck, 1825 [Benezit VIII, 752; Thieme XXVIII, 311]

Charles Reuben Riley (London, c. 1752 – London, 1798) [AKA: Charles Reuben Ryley]: History painter, illustrator and burin engraver. Riley began to work as an engraver and, after studying painting with Mortimer, he only worked as a painter and illustrator. In 1780, he exhibited at the Royal Academy by the first time. His ornamental designs for Duke of Richmond’s Goodwood House were especially well-known [Benezit IX, 204]

Ricardo de los Ríos (Valadolid, 1846 – Madrid, 1929): Painter and etcher. Ricardo de los Ríos, disciple of the French Academic painter Isidore Pils (1813 – 1875), worked for a long time in Paris. He was awarded in 1888 a third class medal and in 1889 and 1900 (during the Universal Exposition) two medals of silver. After 1894, he was awarded as Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur too [Benezit VI, 749]

Manuel Robbe (Paris, 1872 - 1936): French painter and engraver. Manuel Robbe studied etching and painting and became an accomplished engraver, specializing in aquatint. One of the most significant print publishers of the time, Edmond Sagot, was an admirer of Robbe, and regularly published color prints by him. Between the turn of the 20th century and 1914, Robbe produced a large number of aquatints in black and in color. He was awarded a Gold Medal at the Universal Exhibition for his prints in 1900. In 1905, he traded his allegiance from the Societe des Artistes Français to the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, where he was henceforth to exhibit. Robbe executed his strongest work in the decades immediately before and following 1900. Under the guidance of renowned printer Eugène Delâtre, he mastered the techniques of etching and aquatint and soon became a leading artist of publisher Edmond Sagot. Robbe developed a technique known as “sugar-life”, printing his designs with a mixture of sugar, ink and gum Arabic on zinc plates. He would then heat the plate and work with the soft-ground etching process until he achieved the desired effect. Robbe would then paint the subject on the plate with an oil paint brush made of rags. He used his fingers to adjust the tone on the zinc plate, resulting in the appearance of a completely unique print. Robbe was an innovator of the experimental “à la poupée” process of printing many colors from a single plate. During his career, Robbe produced more than 200 aquatints and drypoints, as well as posters promoting corsets and bicycles. The admiration of his work earned him numerous invitations to exhibitions. He received the Bronze Medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.

Antonio Roca y Sallent (Barcelona, ? – Barcelona, 1864): Burin engraver. He was a professor of the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona [Benezit IX, 21]

Pedro Vicente Rodríguez (Valencia, c. 1775 – Mexico, 1822): Painter, burin engraver and medalist. [Benezit: 1999, XI, 815]

Barthélemy Joseph Fulcran Roger (Lodève, 1767- Saulx-les-Chartreux, 1841): Engraver. Roger, Prud’hon and Copia’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1799 and 1819. He was a successful engraver and his engravings were very coveted. The ones for Daphnis et Chloe after Prud’hon’s designs were well-known [Benezit IX, 45]

Romagnol (19th-20th centuries): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1898.

Johann Friedrich Rosmäsler (Leipzig, 1775 – Leipzig, 1858) [AKA: Johann Friedrich Rossmässler]: Burin engraver. His brothers, Johann Adolf (17170 – 1821) and Johann August Rosmäsler (1752 – 1783), were burin engravers too. Joann Friedrich Rosmäsler worked in Berlin for many years and published a series of portraits of German naturalists and doctors [Benezit IX, 109]

Leon Rousseau (19th century): Wood engraver born in Tours and working in Paris between 1875 and 1895. He was a disciple of Quartley and Pannemaker [Benezit IX, 136]

Roux - Feret (19th century) [AKA: Roux et Feret]: Probably, a society of two wood engravers working in Paris around 1836.

Royston (19th century): Stephenson and Royston were a well-known firm of illustrators and engravers in Manchester. Stephenson was a very good line-engraver and, amongst other works, he engraved the greater part of the illustrations in Charles Swain's The Mind, and other poems (Tilt & Bogue, 1841).

François Théodore Ruhierre (Paris, 1808 – Paris, 1884): Burin engraver, painter and medalist. He was nephew and disciple of the burin engraver Edme Jean Ruhierre (Paris, 1789 - ?) [Benezit IX, 173]

Edme Jean Ruhierre (Paris, 1789 - ?): Burin engraver. Edme Jean Ruhierre was disciple of Boutrois and Malbeste and master of his nephew François Théodore Ruhierre (1808 – 1884), a burin engraver too [Benezit IX, 173]

Thomas Ryder I (London, 1746 - ?, 1810): Burin engraver. He was disciple of James Basire II (burin engraver). Ryder exhibited at the Free Society of London between 1766 and 1767. He engraved the “Portrait of Queen Charlotta Sophia” [Benezit IX, 203]

Celestino Sadurní y Deop (Ripoli, 1830 – Barcelona, 1896): Engraver. Sadurní took part in two different editions of Don Quixote: Barcelona: Obradors & Sulé, 1876 and Barcelona: Montaner & Simón, 1880 – 1883 [Benezit IX, 221]

Augustin de Saint-Aubin (Paris, 1736 – Paris, 1807): Burin engraver. Augustin de Saint-Aubin, brother of the artist Gabriel-Jacques, studied under his also brother Charles-Germain and under Laurent Cars, making his debut in 1752 with the etching L’Indiscrétion vengée. Thanks to works such as Jeux des petits polissons de Paris or Habillements à la mode, Saint-Aubin became better known, becoming an Agrégée of the Royal Academy in 1771. Here, he exhibited four portraits after the natural and other eighteen after Cochin’s designs. In 1776 he was appointed “Engraver of the King’s Library” and continued exhibiting engravings after his own designs and also after Cochin, Veronese (Jupiter and Leda), Tiziano (Venus Anadyomede) and others [Benezit IX, 230]

Manuel Salvador Carmona (Nava del Rey, 1734 – Madrid, 1807 or 1820): Engraver and painter. He was the nephew of Luis Salvador Carmona, sculptor (1709 – 1767). He began his artistic training with his uncle and at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid). In 1752 he was sent to Paris to learn engraving, specializing in portraiture and historical prints. There he trained with Nicolas-Gabriel Dupuis and produced numerous engravings, among which were prints of some of the best portraits painted at the French court in addition to both past and contemporary religious, allegorical and genre compositions. He joined the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture as an assistant in 1759, presenting a variety of prints after paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Carle Vanloo, Jean-Baptiste Pierre and Alexandre Roslin. He became an academician in 1761, submitting engravings of portraits by François Boucher and Hyacinthe Collin de Vermont. After marrying Margarita Legrand, he returned to Madrid in 1762 and was appointed honorary academician at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 1764, specializing in engraving and painting. He became Director de Grabado at the Royal Academy in 1777. In 1778, having been widowed, he married Ana Maria Mengs, daughter of Anton Raphael Mengs, in Rome and returned with her to Madrid. In 1783 he received the title of Grabador de Cámara del Rey. His royal commissions included an engraving of Luisa of Bourbon, Princess of Asturias (1774), and among his patrons were the Church, aristocracy, printing presses and scholars. His technique was fastidious, and his subject-matter was very varied, ranging from such portraits as José Herrando (1756) to a Holy Family (1781) [Benezit IX, 256]
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Sampietro (end of 19th – beginning of 20th centuries): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1900.

Samuel Sangster (c. 1804 – 1872): English engraver. Sangster was a disciple of the engraver William Finden (1787 – 1852) and worked for almanacs and magazines [Benezit IX, 277]

J. Saunders (18th - 19th centuries): J. Saunders may refer to three different engravers: 1) John Saunders or Sanders or Sannders “the young” (c. 1750 – Clifton, 1825): Burin engraver, portraitist and painter of landscapes and architectures. 2) John Saunders or Sanders (working c. 1750): English painter and engraver (well-known as black manner engraver). He engraved portraits. 3) Joseph Saunders I (London, 18th-19th centuries): Engraver, miniaturist and editor. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Free Society and the British Institution between 1772 and 1808 [Benezit IX, 273; Benezit IX, 311; Benezit IX, 311]

Jacob Savery (Amsterdam, 1617 - Amsterdam, 1666?) [AKA: Jacob Savry or Savary III]: Burin engraver and publisher. His father, Salomon Savery, was a burin engraver too, painter and acquafortist. He worked in Amsterdam and Delft [Benezit IX, 319]

Laurens Scherm (end of 17th century – beginning of 18th century) [AKA: Lorenz Scherm]: Dutch draughtsman and engraver. He worked in Amsterdam between 1689 and 1707.

Paul Scheurich (New York, 1883 - Brandenburg an der Havel, Gerrmany, 1945): Painter, designer and engraver. Paul Scheurich was a disciple of the Academy of Berlin between 1900 and 1902. He became a professor of the Meissen Porcelain Manufacture and he also made models for the manufactures of Schwarzburg, Nymphenburg and Karlsruhe [Benezit IX, 367]

Johann Wilhelm Schleuen (Berlin, act. 1750-1805): Publisher and engraver from Berlin.

Jacob van der Schley (Amsterdam, 1715 – Amsterdam, 1779): Engraver and designer. Schley was Bernard Picart’s disciple, whose style he imitates. He continued his master’s work after his death in 1733; these illustrations for “Don Quixote” are a perfect example. Schley engraved portraits and several illustrations, as those for Marivaux’ “Vie de Marianne” (1735 – 1747) and Bratôme’s works [Benezit IX, 386]

Eberhard Schlotter (Hildesheim, 1921 - ...): Eberhard Schlotter was born on June 3, 1921, in Hildesheim. His father, the sculptor Heinrich Schlotter, introduced Eberhard to art as a young child. Already as a student, Schlotter was considered a talented drawer and painter. In 1936, he audited classes at the Hildesheim Craft and Industrial School and learned the techniques of drypoint engraving and aquatint. Beginning in 1939, Schlotter attended the Academy of Visual Arts in Munich. The works which he presented at the Great German Art Exhibition in 1941 drew misgivings from the National Socialists. That fall Schlotter was sent to the Eastern front to fight on the vanguard. In 1944, he was severely wounded and, at the end of the war, he ended up as a prisoner of the Americans. After his release in August of 1945, Schlotter moved to Darmstadt to work as a freelance artist. At this time, he became familiar with modern painting, attending numerous exhibitions and reading art magazines. This is how he became acquainted with the works of Paul Cézanne, Matisse, Braque, and Pablo Picasso. In 1950, Schlotter received his first large commissions for facade works, such as mosaics and murals. In 1952, Schlotter took his first trip to Spain, which would later become his second home. From 1955 until 1957, the artist sat as chair of the New Darmstadt Secession. During this time, Schlotter met and befriended the writer Arno Schmidt, with whom he remained friends until his death. He even produced many portraits of his friend. In November of 1956, he and his wife moved to the fishing village of Altea, Spain. []

Stephen Alonzo Schoff (Danville, Vermont, 1818 - Norfolk, Connecticut, 1904): Stephen Alonzo Schoff took up engraving at age 16 as an apprentice under Oliver Pelton of Boston, and then studied under Joseph Andrews, a more accomplished Boston engraver, with whom he visited Europe in 1839. He spent about two years in Paris, studying drawing at the school of Hippolyte Delaroche, and perfecting himself in his art. While in Europe he befriended Asher B. Durand, John William Casilear and John Frederick Kensett. After his return to the United States he was soon employed upon his first important work, "Caius Marius on the Ruins of Carthage," after John Vanderlyn. This plate was issued about 1843 by the Apollo Association (later known as the American Art-Union). In 1844 he was accepted as an Associate Member of the National Academy of Design. He was employed at the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing for three or four years starting in 1869. Schoff befriended the American artist William Morris Hunt during the 1860's and engraved or etched a number of plates after Hunt's works. Schoff was best known for his portraiture. His work took on a freer, looser appearance in the later part of his career. Schoff’s was able to overcome the rigidity of line engraving and adapted to the newer forms of etching that were then becoming popular. He remained productive until two years prior to his death.

Georg Scholz (Wolfenbüttel, 1890 – Waldkirch, 1954): Painter, engraver and lithographer. Scholz had his artistic training at the Karlsruhe Academy, where his teachers included C. Ritter, Hans Thoma, L. Dill and Wilhelm Trübner. He later studied in Berlin under Lovis Corinth. After military service in World War I lasting from 1915 to 1918, he resumed painting, working in a style fusing cubist and futurist ideas. In 1919 Scholz became a member of the German Communist Party, and his work of the next few years is harshly critical of the social and economic order in postwar Germany. His Industrial Farmers of 1920 is an oil painting with collage that depicts a Bible-clutching farmer with money erupting from his forehead, seated next to his monstrous wife who cradles a piglet. Their subhuman son, his head open at the top to show that it is empty, is torturing a frog. Perhaps Scholz' best-known work, it is typical of the paintings he produced in the early 1920s, combining a very controlled, crisp execution with corrosive sarcasm. Scholz quickly became one of the leaders of the New Objectivity, a group of artists who practiced a cynical form of realism. The most famous among this group are Max Beckmann, George Grosz and Otto Dix, and Scholz' work briefly vied with theirs for ferocity of attack. By 1925, however, his approach had softened into something closer to neoclassicism, as seen in the Self-Portrait in front of an Advertising Column of 1926 and the Seated Nude with Plaster Bust of 1927. Appointed a professor at the Baden State Academy of Art in Karlsruhe in 1925, the students he taught included Rudolf Dischinger. Scholz began contributing in 1926 to the satirical magazine Simplicissimus, and in 1928 he visited Paris where he especially appreciated the work of Bonnard. With the rise to power of Hitler and the National Socialists in 1933, Scholz was quickly dismissed from his teaching position. Declared a Degenerate Artist, his works were among those seized in 1937 as part of a campaign by the Nazis to "purify" German culture, and he was forbidden to paint in 1939. In 1945, the French occupation forces appointed Scholz mayor of Waldkirch, but he died that same year [Benezit IX, 422]

Adolf Schrödter (Schewdt, 1805 – Carlsruhe, 1875) [AKA: Adolph Schroeder]: Genre painter, etcher, engraver, lithographer, illustrator and caricaturist. Schrödter was educated in Berlin at the Academy and in Dusseldorf under the painter Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow (1789 – 1862). In 1835 he was elected a Member of the Academy in Berlin. He became known as a painter of genre scenes, vignettes and various diverse illustrations, and his work is now held in major museums and cities around Europe, including those in Amsterdam (the Municipal Museum conserves the oil painting Don Quixote at his library), Berlin (Don Quixote reading in his armchair, 1834, at the Nationalgalerie), Cologne (Don Quixote), Dusseldorf (Don Quixote and his Dulcinea) and Frankfurt [Benezit IX, 443]

J. F. Schuster (18th century): Burin engraver working in Berlin in the 18th century. He engraved several views of Potsdam [Benezit IX, 459]

Louis Gérard Scotin (Paris, 1690 - ¿?, after 1755): French engraver, active in England. He was part of an extensive family of engravers; his grandfather Gérard Scotin I (b 1643), his father, Gérard-Jean-Baptiste Scotin (1671 – 1716), his uncle Jean-Baptiste Scotin (b 1678) and his cousins François-Gérard (b 1703) and Louis-François (d 1769). His brother, Gérard-Jean-Baptiste Scotin II, was a great engraver too, and they are usually confused. After 1733, they both traveled to England and found employment engraving book illustrations. Scotin engraved religious and genre scenes, Hayman’s designs and worked for Bernard Picart [see La Haye: Pierre de Hondt, 1746]. Two of the six plates for Hogarth’s “Marriage a la mode” were engraved by him [Benezit IX, 482]

Edmund Scott (London, c. 1746 – London, c. 1810): Engraver [Benezit X, 483]

John Scott (New Castle, 1774 – Chelsea, 1828): Burin engraver. He was a disciple of Pollard and collaborated with different publications. He was especially talented for the engravings of dogs and horses. His works were quite popular [Benezit IX, 483]

M. V. Sears (British, 19th century): English wood engraver who worked in London at the beginning of the 19th century. He also worked in Leipzig and Paris. His signature appears in two different editions of “Don Quixote”: London: Knight & Lacey, 1824, with designs by Cruikshank; and Paris: Dubochet, 1836 – 1837 with designs by Johannot [Benezit IX, 489]

Fernando Selma (Valencia, 1752 – Madrid, 1810): Engraver, one of the best Spanish engravers. He was Manuel Salvador Carmona’s disciple and followed Gérard Edelinck’s style, French engraver. He engraved the portrait of “Carlos V” after Tiziano, some designs after Rafael too and some plates for “Historia de la Conquista de México” (1783) and “Atlas Marítimo de España” (1786) [Benezit IX, 517]

José Severini (19th-20th century): Wood engraver.

Samuel Seymour (England, end of 18th century - 1823): Landscape painter and burin engraver. Samuel Seymour moved to Philadelphia in 1797, where he settled. He worked as a portrait engraver mainly [Benezit IX, 555]

Samuel Shelley (London, 1750 – London, 1808): Painter, engraver and miniaturist. He began his instruction copying Sir Joshua Reynols’ works. He exposed at the Society of Artists of London, the Royal Academy, the British Institution and the Old Water Colours Society; Shelley was a founding member of this last institution. Shelley had a notable reputation as a miniaturist [Benezit IX, 565]

Charles William Sherborn (London, 1831 - 1912): Engraver and etcher. He attended the Government School of Drawing and Design at Sommerset House, and he was afterwards apprenticed to an engraver in London. In 1851 he went to Paris, where he studied art for nearly twelve months, living in the Students' Quarter as an artisan. From there he went to Rome, where he had the good fortune to study under Pietro Girometti, the medallist and cameo worker, and enjoyed the friendship of John Gibson, the sculptor. After leaving Rome, he visited Naples, Pisa, Florence, and other Italian cities, made a tour through Tuscany, and returning through Switzerland, settled in Geneva for two years. Here he pursued his craft of designer and gold-worker, and obtained a general knowledge of watch and clock manufacture. Returning to London in 1856, he continued his work until 1872, when misfortune in business gave him his opportunity of showing his true powers as an etcher and engraver in pure line. His earliest exhibited work at the Royal Academy was in 1862-63, and since that date he has been fairly constantly represented. On the foundation of the Society of Painter-Etchers in 1884 he was chosen one of the original members, and one of the finest of his works is the line-engraved portrait of his friend, the President of the Society, Sir Seymour Haden. [William Fowler Hopson and Sheldon Cheney: Charles William Sherborn: an appreciation. Berkeley: 1910, 3-4]

Sierra (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847-1856.

Nicolas Charles de Silvestre (Versailles, 1699 – Valenton, 1767): Painter, designer and engraver. He was son and disciple of Charles-François de Silvestre (1667 – 1738), painter designer and burin engraver. He succeeded his father as design professor of the Infant of France and reached a prosperous economy situation. Silvestre got married with Jacques Philippe Le Bas’ daughter, Marguerite Le Bas. He engraved religious, History and genre scenes. In 1747, he became an academician with a landscape painting [Benezit IX, 604-605]

Jean Pierre Simon (Paris, 1769 - ¿?): Engraver and painter. Simon engraved History and genre scenes and illustrations, as those for La Fontaine’s “Fables” [Benezit IX, 612]

Adrien Jacques Simonet jeune (Paris, 1791 - ?): Engraver. Son and disciple of Jean-Baptiste Blaise Simonet (1742 – 1813). He engraved architectures, portraits and vignettes [Benezit IX, 616]

Louis Hercule Sisco (Paris, 1778 – Paris, 1861): Burin engraver. Sisco, R. F. Ingouf and P. Guerín’s disciple, engraved designs after his master, Gros and Menjaud; many of them were vignettes and illustrations for works of classical authors [Benezit IX, 629]

Alexandre Vincent Sixdeniers (Paris, 1795 – Paris, c. 1846): Burin and black manner engraver. Sixdeniers, Villerey’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon between 1822 and 1846. He engraved portraits and history and genre scenes. He was quite successful as black manner engraver [Benezit IX, 636 ]

William Skelton (London, 1763 – London, 1848): Burin engraver. James Basire and William Sharp’s disciple. Skelton worked for Boydell and for the Society of Diletanti, for which he made his best engravings. Those about the English Royal Family (George III and Queen Victoria) were especially successful [Benezit IX, 638]

Slaver (19th century) [AKA: S. SLV]: Wood engraver working in London around 1842. Questionable signature; Ashbee refers to him as Brauen.

Burn Smeeton (): Wood engraver. Smeeton worked in Paris between 1840 and 1860; then, in Spain. Smeeton was master of Auguste Tilly and his son, Pierre Emile Tilly. [Benezit IX, 652]

Anker Smith (London, 1759 – London, 1819): Engraver and miniaturist. He was a disciple of Taylor and of Bartolozzi. Anker Smith collaborated with James Heath and engraved several vignettes for John Bell's “The Poets of Great Britain” (1779 – 1781) and some plates for Boydell’s “Shakespeare Gallery”. In 1797, he became an Associate Engraver to the Royal Academy [Benezit IX, 658]

John Orrin Smith (Colchester, 1799 – London, 1843): Wood engraver. He was a disciple of Samuel Williams and W. Harvey. He engraved illustrations for works of classical authors [Benezit IX, 662]

Noël Eugène Sotain (Paris, 1816 – 1874): Wood engraver. Sotain, a disciple of Barbant “father”, was known for engraving Doré’s designs, among others [Benezit IX, 713]

Paul Constant Soyer (Paris, 1823 - Ecouen, 1903): Genre painter, wood engraver and acquafortist. He was son of Louise Charlotte Soyer, an engraver too, and a disciple of Cogniet. He was only 13 years old when engraved Johannot's designs for Don Quixote (Paris: Dubochet, 1836 - 1837). He also engraved Grandville's designs for another edition of Don Quixote (Paris: Tours Mame, 1848). In 1847, he debuted at the Salon, being awarded a medal in 1870 and a second class medal in 1882 [Benezit IX, 729]

Pierre Gustave Eugène Staal (Vertus, 1817 – Ivry, 1882): Pierre Gustave Eugène Staal (Vertus, 1817 – Ivry, 1882): Portraitist, designer, painter, burin engraver, lithographer and draughtsman. Staal entered the workshop of Paul Delaroche at the l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1838; then he learnt engraving with Adolphe Varin in 1845. He provided the artwork for several engraved works (Les Femmes de M. de Balzac, types, caractères et portraits, 1851; Chants et chansons by Pierre Dupont, 1851-59) for illustrated periodicals (Musée des familles, Magasin pittoresque), for novels (La Comédie humaine by Honoré de Balzac, 1842-1846; Œuvres illustrées de Balzac, 1851-1853; Les Mystères de Paris by Eugène Sue, 1843-1844; Corinne ou l'Italie by Mme de Staël, 1853) and books for children (Contes du docteur Sam by Henry Berthoud, 1862; Le Magasin des enfants by Mme Leprince de Beaumont, 1865; Les Contes de tous les pays by Emile Chasles, 1867). He also did drawings for Muses et Fées, histoire des femmes mythologiques by Joseph Méry and Count Foelix (1851) and for the volume of the Chants et chansons populaires de France (Garnier brothers editors, 1848) [Benezit IX, 763;]

E. Stalker (19th century): Engraver. Stalker lived in London between 1801 and 1823, working also in Philadelphia c.1815. He engraved the plates for Don Quixote edition of Paris: Julio Didot Mayor, 1827 (re-printed in 1832) [Benezit IX, 773]

Stephenson (19th century): Stephenson and Royston were a well-known firm of illustrators and engravers in Manchester. Stephenson was a very good line-engraver and, amongst other works, he engraved the greater part of the illustrations in Charles Swain's The Mind, and other poems (Tilt & Bogue, 1841).

William Strang (Dumbarton, 1859 - 1921): Scottish painter and engraver. W. Strang was born at Dumbarton, the son of Peter Strang, builder, and educated at the Dumbarton Academy. He worked for fifteen months in the counting-house of a firm of shipbuilders before going to London in 1875 when he was sixteen. There he studied art under Alphonse Legros at the Slade School for six years. Strang became assistant master in the etching class, and had great success as an etcher. He was one of the original members of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, and his work was a part of their first exhibition in 1881. Some of his early plates were published in The Portfolio and other art magazines. He worked in many manners, etching, dry point, mezzotint, sand-ground mezzotint, and burin engraving. Lithography and wood-cutting were also used by him to create pictures. He cut a large wood engraving of a man ploughing, later published by the Art for Schools Association. A privately produced catalog of his engraved work contained more than three hundred items. Among his earlier works were Tinkers, St. Jerome, A Woman Washing Her Feet, An Old Book-stall with a Man Lighting His Pipe from a Flare, and The Head of a Peasant Woman on sand-ground mezzotint. Later plates such as Hunger, The Bachelor's End and The Salvation Army were also important. Some of his best etchings were done as series—one of the earliest, illustrating poet William Nicholson's Ballad of Aken Drum, is remarkable for clear, delicate workmanship in the shadow tones, showing great skill and power over his materials, and for strong drawing. Another praised series was The Pilgrim's Progress, revealing austere sympathy with John Bunyan's teaching. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Ancient Mariner and Strang's own Allegory of Death and The Plowman's Wife, have served him with suitable imaginative subjects. Some of Rudyard Kipling's stories were also illustrated by him, and his likeness of Kipling was one of his most successful portrait plates. Other etched portraits included those of Ernest Sichel and of J.B. Clark, with whom Strang collaborated in illustrating Baron Munchausen (1895) and Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba (1896). Thomas Hardy, Sir Henry Newbolt and other distinguished men also sat for him. Proofs from these plates have been much valued; in fact, Strang's portrait etchings began a new form of reproductive portraiture. Strang produced a number of paintings, portraits, nude figures in landscapes, and groups of peasant families, which were exhibited at the Royal Academy, The International Society, and several German exhibitions. He painted a decorative series of scenes from the story of Adam and Eve for the library of a Wolverhampton landowner named Hodson; they were exhibited at the Whitechapel exhibition in 1910. Some of his nude model drawings in silver point and red and black chalk are very beautiful as well as powerful and true. He also painted landscapes, mostly small in size. In later years he developed a style of drawing in red and black chalk, with the whites and high lights rubbed out, on paper stained with water color. His method gives qualities of delicate modelling and refined form and gradations akin to the drawings of Hans Holbein the Younger. He drew portraits in this manner of many members of the Order of Merit for the royal library at Windsor Castle. In 1902 Strang retired from the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, as a protest against the inclusion in its exhibitions of etched or engraved reproductions of pictures. His work was subsequently seen principally in the exhibitions of the Royal Academy, the Society of Twelve and the International Society, to which he was elected in 1905. Strang was also elected an associate engraver of the Royal Academy when that degree was revived in 1906. William Strang was master of the Art Workers Guild in 1907. []

Edmund J. Sullivan (1869 - 1933): Well-known British illustrator of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As a youth Sullivan studied under his father, Michael, and received his first employment as an illustrator in 1889 from William Thomas for a new periodical, the Daily Graphic. He illustrated his first book, George Borrow's Lavengro, in 1896. Sullivan received three other commissions for books that same year, quickly establishing himself as an outstanding illustrator of the period especially adept at visualizing fantastic subject matter, such as H. G. Wells's "Stories of the Days to Come" in the Pall Mall Magazine, 1899. Sullivan lectured on book illustration and lithography at Goldsmith College and wrote two books on the subject, The Art of Illustration (Chapman and Hall, 1921) and Line (Chapman and Hall, 1922), which secured his lasting influence. One of his most-known works are the 79 illustrations for Sartor Resartus (1898), which made his reputation as one of the premier pen & ink artists of the day. []

N. Surroca (Barcelona, 19th century): Engraver working in Barcelona around 1858.

Louis Surugue père (Paris, c. 1686 – Grand Vaux près Savigny, 1762) [AKA: Louis de Surugue de Surgis]: Draughtsman, etcher, engraver, print-publisher and print-seller. He was brother of the sculptor Pierre Etienne Surugue and he trained with Bernard Picart, whom he followed to the Netherlands in 1710. He returned to France in 1715, to combine his work as a printmaker with publishing and selling prints. In 1730 he was approved by the Académie Royale and in 1735 he became an academician. He engraved portraits and genre scenes, and was sought after for his careful style and his firm and precise lines. He owned a considerable collection of prints. Between 1738 and 1761 he exposed several engravings at the Salon. His son Pierre-Louis de Surugue (1716 – 1772) was likewise an etcher and engraver, print-publisher and print-seller [Benezit X, 15]
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Suxinot (Paris, 19th century): Engraver. Suxinot engraved a Cervantes’ portrait after Choquet’s design for Don Quixote edition of Paris: Delongchamps, 1824.

Pieter Tanjé (Bolsward, 1706 - Amsterdam, 1761) [AKA: Pierre Tanjé]: Designer, burin engraver and acquafortist. Tanjé, Jakob Folkema's disciple, engraved portraits and history and genre scenes. He collaborated as engraver with the Gallery of Dresden. He engraved several plates for other Don Quixote (La Haye: Gosse, 1744). [Benezit X, 70]

Ambroise Tardieu (Paris, 1788 – Paris, 1841): Engraver and print, map and book seller. Tardieu worked as naval cartographer for the navy. He published atlas books of great quality [Benezit X, 77]

Ernest Louis Tavernier (Paris, 19th century): Engraver and acquafortist. Tavernier, Lemaître’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon in 1861 by the first time; he engraved “architectures” [Benezit X, 92]

Pierre Joseph Tavernier (Ardennes, 1787 - ?): Burin and black manner engraver. Tavernier, who exhibited at the Salon between 1819 and 1845, engraved portraits and genre scenes [Benezit X, 92]

William Dean Taylor (London, 1794 - 1857): Engraver. William Dean Taylor studied art in London at the Royal Academy Schools. Excelling at both portraits and figure studies, Taylor's first published engravings date from 1820. During the following thirty years he received many commissions to work for major London art publishers, such as Colnaghi. Duke of Wellington (Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1769-1852) is now regarded as Taylor's greatest work of engraved art.

Charles Thompson (London, 1791 – Bourg-la-Reine, 1843): Wood engraver. Brother and disciple of the well-known wood engraver John Thompson (Manchester, 1785 – Kensington, 1866); he was a disciple of Bewick too. In 1816, he settled in Paris, becoming a successful engraver; in 1824 he was awarded with a golden medal. Thompson elaborated plates for L’Histoire de l’Ancien et du Noveau Testament (1835), Fables de Fontaine (1836), Augustin Thierry’s Conquête d’Angleterre (1841) and Corrine (1841). His nephew, Charles Thurston Thompson (Peckham, 1818 – Paris, 1868), was a wood engraved too [Benezit X, 159]

Paton Thomson (London, c. 1750 – ¿?, after 1821): Engraver. He was well-known because of his engravings of famous actresses in their leading roles, as Kemble or Kean [Benezit X, 163]

John Thurston (Scarborough, 1774 – London, 1822): Watercolorist, illustrator and wood engraver. Thurston was specialized in copper plate and wood engraved illustrations to stories. He was known because of his illustrations for an edition of Shakespeare’s works (1814) [Benezit X, 173]

Jean-Paul, Pablo, Tillac (Angoulême, 1880-Bayonne, 1969): Painter, engraver, sculptor and illustrator. Jean Paul Tillac was born in (Charente) in 1880. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where his teachers included Gérôme, Jacquet, Cormon, and (for printmaking) Charles Waltner. After sojourns in New York, Cuba, Texas, and England, in 1911 Jean Paul Tillac settled in Cambo-les-Bains in the Basque country, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. Tillac was passionate about Basque and Spanish culture, adopting the name Pablo, and speaking both Basque and Spanish. Much of his work is in the Musée Basque in Bayonne.

Auguste Tilly (Toul, ? - ?, 1898): Wood engraver. He was disciple of Coisser and Burn Smeeton. In 1874, he exhibited at the Salon by the first time. His son, Pierre Emile Tilly, was a wood engraver too. The plates engraved by both are signed as “E & A Tilly”. The plates engraved with Burn Smeeton as signed as “SMEETON.TILLY” [Benezit X, 185]

Pierre Emile Tilly (Toul, 19th century – ?): Wood engraver. He was disciple of his father and Burn Smeeton. The plates engraved by him and his father are signed as “E & A Tilly”. We can’t know if the plates signed as “SMEETON.TILLY” were engraved by Burn Smeeton and Tilly “father” or “son” [Benezit X, 185]

Toro (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Pierre Colombe Touzé (ending of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): French engraver.

Auguste Trichon (Paris, 1814 - ?):) [AKA: François Auguste Trichon]: Wood engraver. Trichon, K. Brown’s disciple, exhibited at the Salon in 1848 by the first time. He was one of the most popular wood engravers. He worked for Les Etrangers á Paris, Musée des Familles, L’Illustration, Le Journal pour tous, Le Magasin des Enfants, L’Universe Illustré, etc. [Benezit X, 272]

François Auguste Trichon (Paris, 1814 - ?): Wood engraver. Trichon, K. Brown’s disciple, made his debut at the Salon in 1848. He was one of the most popular wood engravers. He worked for Les Etrangers á Paris, Musée des Familles, L’Illustration, Le Journal pour tous, Le Magasin des Enfants, L’Universe Illustré, Le Journal du Dimanche, Charles Blanc’s L’Histoire des peintres, La Famille, etc. [Benezit X, 272]

Traver (19th century): Wood engraver working in Barcelona around 1876.

William E. Tucker (Philadelphia, 1801 – Philadelphia, 1857): Burin engraver. Tucker, a disciple of F. Kearny, worked in Philadelphia engraving portraits, landscapes, genre scenes and views of that city. He also engraved book illustrations [Benezit X, 301]

José Vallejo y Gabazo (Málaga, 1821 – Madrid, 1882): Genre painter, lithographer, acquafortist and illustrator. José Vallejo was a disciple of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. He also worked painting ceilings for theaters and the Royal Palace. He painted an Allegory of don Quijote [Benezit X, 380]

Philippe Joseph Auguste Vallot (Vienna, 1796 – Paris, 1840): Engraver, etcher and designer. Vallot studied under Oortman in Paris and made his debut at the Salon in 1838, being awarded a first class medal. He engraved religious subjects, History scenes and vignettes to illustrate works by Voltaire, Rousseau, Rabelais, Cervantes and others [Benezit X, 383]

Bartolomé Vázquez (Córdoba, 1749 – Madrid, 1802): Burin engraver. Bartolomé Vázquez was an engraver of religious subjects mainly. His son, José Vázquez, was an engraver too. [Benezit: 1999, XIV, 80]

José Vázquez (Córdoba, 1768 – Madrid, 1804): Burin engraver. José Vázquez studied at San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts; his father, Bartolomé Vázquez, was an engraver too. [Benezit: 1999, XIV, 80]

Antonio Vázquez (dead in 1817): Burin engraver. Antonio Vázquez engraved several portraits and illustrations for a treatise on horseriding. [Benezit: 1999, XIV, 80]

Giovanni Vendramini (Roncade, Treviso, 1769 - London, 1839): Italian engraver and architect. Vendramini pursued his studies in his own country till nineteen, when he came to London, and completed his artistic education under Francesco Bartolozzi. In 1802 he married an English wife, and in 1805 he went to Russia, and spent two years in that country. He was patronized by the Emperor and the court, and his talents so highly appreciated, that he was refused a passport when he was desirous of returning to England. He, however, with the assistance of his friend, the Duke of Saracapriolo at that time Neapolitan ambassador, contrived to escape, disguised us a courier charged with dispatches. His departure was hastened by an accident that happened to a large cameo, Alexander and Olympia, from which he had to engrave a plate for the emperor. On his return to England he engraved several popular pictures by contemporary painters. Among these are, The Vision of S. Catherine, after Paolo Veronese; S. Sebastian after Jusepe Ribera; Leda after Leonardo da Vinci; and lastly, The Raising of Lazarus after Sebastiano del Piombo. Vendramini was a very accurate draughtsman, and frequently engraved from a picture without making a preparatory drawing.

Pierre Verdeil (Nîmes, 1812 - ¿?): Wood engraver. Between 1857 and 1874 he exposed in the Salon. Verdeil collaborated with several illustrated humorous magazines [Benezit X, 445]

George Vertue (London, 1684 – London, 1756): Designer, acquafortist, burin and dry point engraver (Michel van der Gucht’s disciple) and collector. Well-known English engraver, since 1709 he worked by himself for several booksellers. He engraved designs by Kneller, Dahl, Richardson, Jervas and Gibson. In 1711, he was accepted into the Academy of Painting, whose director was sir Godfrey Kneller. His reputation as painter increased thanks to a portrait of the King. In 1717, he was appointed engraver of the Society of Archeology of London; also worked for the University of Oxford. He prepared a never published Art History of England; after his death, Horace Walpole (1717 – 1797) collected his notes and used them for his own work Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762). George Vertue was buried in Westminster Abbey cloister [Benezit X, 479-480]

Vilaplana (19th century): Wood engraver working in Madrid around 1847.

Auguste Villerey (Paris, 1801 - ?): Burin engraver. Villerey was son and a disciple of Antoine Claude François Villerey (1754 – 1828). He engraved illustrations and vignettes for works of Cervantes, Molière and Voltaire. His brother, Nicolas Scholastique Villerey (1801 - ?), was a history engraver [Benezit X, 515]

J. Vitou (France, 19th - 20th centuries): Wood engraver working in Paris around 1900.

Wainwright (End of 18th century – beginning of 19th century): Engraver working in London around 1821.

Walker (18th century): Burin engraver. Probably, William Walker (Thirsk, 1729 – London, 1793). W. Walker, who was a disciple of his brother Anthony Walker, worked as an engraver of book illustrations. His son, John Walker, was an engraver too and he finished some of his father’s works. William Walker was master of William Angus [Benezit X, 612-613]

Emery Walker (London, 1851 - 1933): English printer and photoengraver. When Emery Walker was just 12 he bought a 17th century book from a rag and bone man in Hammersmith, starting a lifelong passion for books and printing. But only a year later, Walker had to leave school to earn money to support his family because his father lost his sight. He started off in a linen drapers, but soon went to work at the recently started Typographic Etching Company, and worked with books for the rest of his life. He quickly taught himself the history of printing and learnt the processes of printing. In 1877 he married Mary Grace Dunthorne, and in 1879 he moved to Hammersmith. His only child, Dorothy, was born in 1878. In 1883 Walker set up in business with his brother-in-law Robert. Two years later he founded with his friend Walter Boutall the firm of Walker and Boutall, Automatic and Photographic Engravers. The firm developed a highly influential technique of process engraving for illustrating books with photographs and artworks. The company was considered the best in the business. The street on which Walker lived happened to be the same street where the poet, designer and social reformer William Morris was renting a house. At first, the two didn’t meet, but the Morris family observed Walker and his family, calling him the ‘brown velveteen artist’ who sometimes flitted by ‘leading by the hand a pretty little maid in white muslin.’ Morris also spotted Walker on the train reading one of Morris’s own works, the Earthly Paradise, but they didn't speak. Emery Walker finally met William Morris through the Socialist Movement. Their shared passions for books, architecture and design cemented a close friendship. It was Walker who introduced Morris to the possibilities of designing type and printing books. His technical expertise was crucial to the success of the Kelmscott Press founded by Morris in 1890. Walker became friends with many of the members of the Arts and Crafts Movement, but his greatest influence was on the people who took forward the Private Press Movement. He was a technical adviser to the St. John Hornby’s Ashendene Press, and helped many aspiring printers, as his wide correspondence shows. Many of the private press books in the library are personal gifts from the people who ran the presses. But it wasn't until 1900 that he set up his own press, the Doves Press, with a friend, the bookbinder and fellow member of the Morris circle, T J Cobden-Sanderson. The two men were very different in temperament. Walker’s humility and down-to-earth approach was a contrast to Cobden-Sanderson’s visionary, irrational nature. The partnership lasted only eight years, but produced a series of very fine and austerely decorated books. Walker spent time in the Cotswolds. He was a good friend of the Arts and Crafts designer Ernest Gimson, and stayed several times with his friend in Sapperton, near Cirencester, Gloucestershire. In 1922, after Gimson's death, he rented Gimson's old showroom, Daneway House near Sapperton. The artistic community in the area was strong thanks to Gimson and his friends Ernest and Sidney Barnsley, but Walker developed a creative circle of visitors including Rudyard Kipling, T E Lawrence, and the Sitwells. The American printer Bruce Rogers was a visitor, as was Walker’s good friend the bookbinder Katherine Adams who bound many of the books in the collection. Walker was knighted in 1930, and received many honors for his services to both Private Press printing and the printing industry. []

John Walmsley (19th century): Wood engraver working in London between 1839 and 1878.

Walter & Boutall (19th century): The firm of Walter & Boutall was a partnership between Sir Emery Walker & Walter Boutall. The company had a studio on Fleet Street in the City of London from 1887 until 1900. The partnership was dissolved in 1900 and was succeeded by Walter & Cockerell.

Charles Turner Warren (London, 1762 – Wandsworth, 1823): Burin Engraver. Warren was a very talented engraver, but he is not too much known. He began working as an engraver of cylinders for fabric (textile); then, he specialized in artistic engraving for books of poetry and novels. Warren was employed by Bell, Harrison and Cadell. He was a remarkable steel engraver; indeed, he won a golden medal in the Society of Art. His plates after Smirke’s designs for Don Quixote are his most remarkable work, but he also engraved designs of Wilkie and F. Kirk [Benezit X, 641]

Alfred William Warren (London, 1st half of 19th century): Engraver. Alfred William Warren, son of the engraver Charles Turner Warren (London, 1762 – Wansworth, 1823), worked for different printers and booksellers in London engraving illustrations and genre scenes [Benezit X, 641]

Richard Westall (Hertford, 1765 – London, 1836): History, landscape and genre painter, book illustrator and burin engraver. He was apprenticed to a heraldic silver engraver in London in 1779 before studying at the Royal Academy School of Art from 1785. He exhibited at the Academy regularly between 1784 and 1836, became an Associate in 1792 and was elected an Academician in 1794. His works –many in water-color– include portraits (including Queen Victoria, Lord Byron and Richard Ayton), many elegant and historical subjects of a neo-classical nature and book illustrations, more interested in being imaginative than accurate (including an edition of the Bible and of John Milton’s Poems). He worked for the noted publisher John Boydell. He also served as drawing master to Princess, later Queen Victoria since 1827 till his death [Benezit X, 705).]

Thomas Williams (c. 1800 - c. 1840): English wood engraver. He was brother and disciple of the well-known wood engraver Samuel Williams (1788 - 1853). He engraved in wood illustrations for Northcott's Fables and for Martin's Bible. Between 1831 and 1840 he exposed in the Royal Academy of London and in the British Institution. His sister, Ann Mary Williams, collaborated with him and his brother [Benezit X, 745]

Mary Ann Williams (first half of 19th century): English wood engraver and genre painter. She was sister and collaborator of her brothers, Samuel and Thomas Williams [Benezit X, 742]

Rafael Ximeno (Valencia, 1759 – Mexico, after 1802) [AKA: Rafael Gimeno]: Painter and engraver. He was a disciple of San Carlos Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Valencia), of San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid) and of the Academy at Rome. He became a professor of the Academy at Valencia and director of the Academy of Mexico. Between his works, the portraits of “Meng” and “Marquesa de los Llanos”, several religious paintings, frescos and the “Assumption” for the cathedral of Mexico [Benezit V, 7]

Edmond Charles Joseph Yon (Paris, 1836 – Paris, 1897): Landscape painter, and wood engraver. Edmond Yon was a pupil of Jean Achille Pouget and of Justin Lequien (1826 - 1882), both sculptors and engravers. His opening debut was with the Salon of 1865. He showed engravings on wood and several illustrations for the works of Victor Hugo. When he started painting he would interpret the works of such artist as d’Anastasi, de Bernier, Corot, Millet, Guillemet and Van Marckeand Vernier. In 1867, he premiered the painting titled Chemin Veizy at the Salon. He won his first medal at a Salon in 1875 with a painting entitled Bras de la Seine, which was painted around Montereau. He also won a second class medal at the 1879 Salon with his painting entitled Le Bas de Montigny, Bords de la Marne. In 1886 he was elected Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. At the Worlds Fair in 1889 he won a gold Medal. Yon loved painting the edges of rivers and was often found painting along the banks of the Beaver River, Marne and Seine [Benezit X, 849-850]

Eusebio Zarza (19th century): Spanish painter and engraver. Zarza was a disciple of the San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. Between 1856 and 1881 he exhibited paintings with religious subjects and wooden sculptures. Zarza signed a xylograph with a “real” portrait of Cervantes after a painting attributed to Francisco Pacheco; it was published in El Museo Universal (nº 16, April 18, 1868) [Benezit X, 874; Ashbee 393]

John Christian Zeitter (? – London, 1862) [AKA: Johann Christian Zeitter]: Genre painter and engraver. Between 1824 and 1862 he exposed at London. He was known because of his Polish and Hungarian genre scenes, as The Hungarian tinkers wedding. He was a member of the Society of British Artists (1841) [Benezit X, 880]


Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines lexikon der bildenden kunstler von der antike bis zur gegenwart; unter mitwirkung von 300 fachgelehrten des in- und auslandes hrsg, Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1907-50, 37 vols.

Emmanuel Benezit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays, par un groupe d'ecrivains specialistes francais et etrangers, Paris, Librairie Grund, 1976, 10 vols.